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Abstract

Objective—To determine the response rate after administration of a single dose of doxorubicin in dogs with B-cell or T-cell multicentric or thymic lymphoma.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—41 client-owned dogs with lymphoma.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs in which lymphoma was diagnosed between February 2006 and October 2008 were reviewed. Entry criteria included that dogs had a confirmed lymphoma that was immunophenotyped to be of B-cell or T-cell origin. Only dogs that received doxorubicin alone as their first chemotherapy treatment and were evaluated 1 week later were included in the study. Dogs were excluded when they had received prior treatment with corticosteroids. Medical records were reviewed to obtain signalment, stage and substage of lymphoma, and immunophenotype and to determine whether the dog had hypercalcemia at the time of diagnosis.

Results—Dogs with T-cell lymphoma had a significantly lower response rate to doxorubicin than did dogs with B-cell lymphoma. Twenty-five of 29 (86.2%) dogs with B-cell lymphoma had a complete response, compared with 2 of 12 dogs in the T-cell group that had a complete response. The overall response rate of dogs with B-cell lymphoma was 100%, compared with a response rate of 50% in dogs with T-cell lymphoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Standard-of-care chemotherapy protocols for the treatment of dogs with lymphoma include doxorubicin. Many dogs with T-cell lymphoma did not respond to doxorubicin; therefore, multiagent protocols containing doxorubicin may not be optimal. Alternative protocols should be considered for dogs with T-cell lymphoma that do not respond to doxorubicin.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Nine dogs with intermediate- or high-grade lymphoma were prospectively entered into a protocol to be given a total of 15 weekly doses of doxorubicin (10 mg/m2 of body surface, iv) in an attempt to eliminate all clinical evidence of neoplasia, with minimal risk of drug toxicity. Eight of these dogs did not complete the protocol because of progression of the disease. The median number of doses administered to dogs that developed progressive disease before the regimen was completed was 5 (range, 2 to 9). Seven dogs achieved partial (n = 5) or complete (n = 2) remission, with median duration of 14 days (range, 7 to 231 days). The dog that was given all 15 weekly treatments remained in complete remission for 231 days. Complete remission that lasted for 14 days was observed in another dog. Toxicosis developed in 3 dogs; signs of toxicosis were generally mild and included colitis (n = 1), vomiting (n = 1), neutropenia (n = 1), and lethargy (n = 1). The lowest neutrophil count (1,876 cells/μl) was seen in one dog after 7 doses of doxorubicin were given. Doxorubicin at dosage of 10 mg/m2/wk appears to be safe, but is generally ineffective for treatment of lymphoma.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seven cats with squamous cell carcinoma involving the mandible were treated by surgery and radiotherapy. Surgery consisted of hemimandibulectomy or combined rostral and hemimandibulectomy, gastrostomy tube placement, and submandibular lymph node excisional biopsy. Radiotherapy (orthovoltage or 60Co) commenced 2 weeks after surgery. Histologically, the tumor invaded surgical margins in 6 of 7 cats. Nerve infiltration was histologically identified in 2 cats. All cats had stage-3 disease with radiographic evidence of mandibular bone involvement. Age ranged between 8 and 16 years (median, 10 years). Hypercalcemia (2), feline immunodeficiency virus (2), and hyperthyroidism (1), were detected in cats prior to treatment. Survival after surgery,) was a median of 14 months (range = 3 to 36 months, mean = 15 months). Six cats were euthanatized because of recurrence of disease at 3, 7, 9, 16, 21, and 36 months. One cat was euthanatized at 14 months because of an unrelated disease. Complications of tongue lagging, drooling after meals, mandibular drift, maxillary ulceration, and alopecia of the jaw developed in a few cats. Radiation at the primary site and regional lymph nodes after surgery of curative intent extended survival in cats with mandibular squamous cell carcinoma.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Of 82 dogs with thyroid carcinoma seen between January 1981 and October 1989, 20 had freely movable tumors without evidence of metastasis and were treated with surgical excision alone. Uncensored mean and median survival times for these 20 dogs were both 20.5 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, which censors for nontumor-related deaths and dogs lost to follow-up, indicated that median survival time was greater than 36 months. Seven dogs died of tumor-related causes: 2 died because of metastasis or local recurrence of the tumor, 5 died of treatment-related complications (eg, laryngeal paralysis, hypocalcemia, tracheostomy complications). Eight dogs died of unrelated causes; 1 dog was lost to follow-up at 26 months after surgery; 3 dogs were alive 19, 24, and 26 months after surgery. Cause of death could not be determined in the remaining dog. Long-term survival is possible following surgical removal of mobile thyroid carcinomas in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a vaccine containing plasmid DNA with an insert encoding human tyrosinase (ie, huTyr vaccine) as adjunctive treatment for oral malignant melanoma (MM) in dogs.

Animals—111 dogs (58 prospectively enrolled in a multicenter clinical trial and 53 historical controls) with stage II or III oral MM (modified World Health Organization staging scale, I to IV) in which locoregional disease control was achieved.

Procedures—58 dogs received an initial series of 4 injections of huTyr vaccine (102 μg of DNA/injection) administered transdermally by use of a needle-free IM vaccination device. Dogs were monitored for adverse reactions. Surviving dogs received booster injections at 6-month intervals thereafter. Survival time for vaccinates was compared with that of historical control dogs via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the outcome of death.

Results—Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival time until death attributable to MM was determined to be significantly improved for dogs that received the huTyr vaccine, compared with that of historical controls. However, median survival time could not be determined for vaccinates because < 50% died of MM before the end of the observation period. No systemic reactions requiring veterinary intervention were associated with vaccination. Local reactions were primarily limited to acute wheal or hematoma formation, mild signs of pain at the injection site, and postvaccination bruising.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results support the safety and efficacy of the huTyr DNA vaccine in dogs as adjunctive treatment for oral MM.

Impact for Human Medicine—Response to DNA vaccination in dogs with oral MM may be useful in development of plasmid DNA vaccination protocols for human patients with similar disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research