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  • Author or Editor: Margarethe E. Hoenig x
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Prednisone was administered orally for 4 weeks at a dosage of 1.1 mg/kg of body weight/d, in divided dose every 12 hours, to a group of healthy adult dogs (n = 12). Intravenous glucose tolerance testing was performed before and after the 28-day regimen in each dog, as well as in dogs of a control group (n = 6). Glucose metabolism was evaluated by measurement of preprandial plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, total insulin secretion, and fractional clearance of glucose.

Mean preprandial plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were not increased after the 4-week regimen of prednisone. Total insulin secretion in response to an IV administered glucose load was not increased in treated dogs, compared with pretreatment values or with values for control dogs. The fractional clearance of glucose was also not altered in dogs given prednisone. Results indicate that anti-inflammatory doses of prednisone, given orally for 4 weeks, probably do not alter insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance in clinically normal dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To identify variations in glucose values concurrently obtained by use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) at the same site, reliability of results for each site, lag time for each site, and influence of site thickness on CGMS accuracy.

ANIMALS 8 random-source research dogs.

PROCEDURES In experiment 1, 8 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at 1 site (4 sensors/side) in 4 dogs. In experiment 2, 2 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at each of 4 sites (1 sensor/side) in 8 dogs; 4 of those 8 dogs then were subjected to a glycemic clamp technique. The CGMS results were compared among sensors and with criterion-referenced results during periods of euglycemia for all 8 dogs and during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia for 4 dogs during the glycemic clamp procedure.

RESULTS Differences (median, −7 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR], −18.75 to 3 mg/dL) between CGMS and criterion-referenced glucose concentrations differed significantly among dogs and sites; during euglycemia, they were not different from the expected normal variation between multiple sensors concurrently implanted at the same site. Differences (median, −35 mg/dL; IQR, −74 to −15 mg/dL) between CGMS and criterion-referenced concentrations were greater during changes in glucose concentrations. Thoracic sensors were most accurate but had the shortest mean functional life.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Significant differences were detected between CGMS and criterion-referenced glucose concentrations. Overall clinical utility of CGMS was acceptable at all sites, with most of the values from all sensors, sites, and dogs meeting guidelines for point-of-care glucometers.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Prednisone was given orally to 12 dogs daily for 35 days at an anti-inflammatory dosage (1.1 mg/kg of body weight in divided dose, q 12 h) to study its effect on thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) metabolism. Six of these dogs were surgically thyroidectomized (THX-Pred) and maintained in euthyroid status by daily SC injections of T4 to study peripheral metabolism while receiving prednisone; 6 dogs with intact thyroid gland (Pred) were given prednisone; and 6 additional dogs were given gelatin capsule vehicle as a control group (Ctrl).

Baseline T4 concentration after 4 weeks of treatment was not significantly different in dogs of the THX-Pred or Pred group (mean ± SEM, 2.58 ± 0.28 or 3.38 ± 0.58 μg/dl, respectively) vs dogs of the Ctrl group (2.12 ± 0.30 μg/dl). A supranormal response of T4 to thyrotropin was observed in dogs of the Pred group, but the T4 response to thyrotropinreleasing hormone was normal. Baseline T3 concentration in dogs of both steroid-treated groups was significantly (P< 0.05) lower after 2 and 4 weeks of prednisone administration vs pretreatment values, but normalized 2 weeks after prednisone was stopped. Free T3 (FT3) and T4 (FT4) fractions and absolute FT3 and FT4 concentrations were not altered by prednisone administration. Reverse T3 (rT3) concentration in vehicle-treated Ctrl dogs (26.6 ± 3.5 ng/dl) was not different from rT3 concentration in dogs of the THX-Pred (25.7 ± 4.3 ng/dl) and Pred (28.9 ± 3.8 ng/dl) groups after 4 weeks of medication. These data indicate that daily oral administration of such anti-inflammatory dose of prednisone for 1 month reduces baseline serum T3 concentration, does not alter serum T4 concentration, and enhances thyroidal sensitivity to thyrotropin.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) depletion on dogs with induced chronic renal failure.


2 groups of 26 mixed-breed dogs of both sexes (13 were parathyroidectomized [PTX] and 13 had sham surgery).


After surgical reduction of renal mass and PTX, dogs were selected for a 24-month period of study and monitored for clinical, hematologic, blood biochemical, and organ function status. On development of uremia or after 24 months, dogs were euthanatized, and tissues were examined.


Higher survival rate and smaller decrement in renal function (glomerular filtration rate) were observed in PTX dogs, compared with those that had sham surgery, but values did not reach statistical significance. The PTX dogs remained hypocalcemic during the study and had lower serum Ca2+ × P product values. Regardless of parathyroid state, survivors and fatalities could be separated on the basis of serum Ca2+ × P product values. Parathyroidectomy did not prevent renal deposition of calcium, and renal lesions were poorly correlated with renal cortical calcium concentration. Abnormalities reported in dogs with renal failure, which were attributed to PTH (glucose intolerance, pulmonary hypertension), were not observed in PTX dogs or those that had sham surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

PTX had beneficial effects, but these were mediated via changes in mineral homeostasis rather than via direct effects of PTH. Results attributable to PTX were similar to those previously obtained by dietary restriction of phosphate intake. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:188–195)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research