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  • Author or Editor: Kimberly A. Thompson x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of serum immunocrit measurement to detect failure of passively acquired immunity (FPI) in dairy calves.

DESIGN Diagnostic test evaluation.

ANIMALS 249 female dairy calves (age, 2 to 6 days).

PROCEDURES A blood sample was collected from each calf, and serum was harvested. Immunocrit was measured in serum samples by use of 55% ammonium sulfate solution and the standard technique. Serum IgG concentration was measured by means of radial immunodiffusion (reference standard), with FPI defined as a result < 1,000 mg/dL. The immunocrit value (cutpoint) that maximized both sensitivity and specificity of the method for detection of FPI was determined by construction of receiver operating characteristic curves, and likelihood ratios for positive and negative test results were calculated.

RESULTS Immunocrit values were significantly correlated (ρ = 0.71) with serum IgG concentration as measured by radial immunodiffusion. An immunocrit cutpoint of 11% was optimal for detection of FPI in the calves. Sensitivity and specificity of the immunocrit method at this cutpoint were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.97) and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.44 to 0.58), respectively. Likelihood ratios for positive and negative test results were 1.80 (95% CI, 1.51 to 2.14) and 0.23 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.51), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The immunocrit method was useful for identifying dairy calves with FPI and was simple and could be quickly performed. Because precipitation of immunoglobulins by ammonium sulfate is not species specific, the immunocrit method should be evaluated for detection of FPI in other veterinary species as well.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


CASE DESCRIPTION A client-owned 2-year-old 1.8-kg (4-lb) male pet Rouen duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) was evaluated because of severe swelling around the left eye following traumatic injury to the upper and lower eyelids and 2 associated surgeries that resulted in the removal of the entire upper and lower eyelid margins.

CLINICAL FINDINGS At initial evaluation, ankyloblepharon of the left eye was observed, with no upper or lower eyelid margins and a large, round, fluctuant subcutaneous mass over the left orbit. Orbital exploration and histologic examination revealed a benign cyst consisting of fibrous tissue, conjunctiva, and skeletal muscle bundles. Bacterial culture of cystic fluid yielded few Staphylococcus delphini.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Excision of the cyst and evisceration of the left globe were performed, and once daily treatment with orally administered enrofloxacin suspension (12.6 mg/kg [5.7 mg/lb]) and meloxicam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) was initiated. Over the next 4 days, the cyst redeveloped and progressively enlarged. Accumulated fluid was aspirated from the cyst, and 20 mg of gentamicin was injected intraorbitally with ultrasound guidance. Over the subsequent 27-month period, no recurrence of clinical signs or adverse effects were reported by the owner.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of cyst formation after adnexal injury and evisceration in birds and its successful treatment with intralesional gentamicin injection. Findings emphasized the importance of preserving lacrimal puncta during adnexal or eye removal surgeries in birds. Intralesional injection of gentamicin with the goal of destroying fluid-producing cells may be a safe and effective way to treat intraorbital cysts in birds and other species, although additional research would be required to confirm this.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) serum antibody titers in domestic goats after SC and IM administration of an experimental, veterinary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


31 healthy adult domestic goats from 4 zoological institutions.


On day 0, blood was collected for baseline serum titer before vaccination with 1 mL SARS-CoV-2 recombinant S protein vaccine SC (n = 22) or IM (n = 9). A booster vaccination was administered 21 (SC group) or 28 days (IM group) after the initial vaccine and blood samples were collected at days 21 (SC group) or 28 (IM group), 42, 90, and 180 postvaccinations. The study took place between September 27, 2021, and June 01, 2022. Seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by a SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization (VN) assay.


Before vaccination, no goats had detectable antibodies. On day 42, 100% of goats had detectable serum titers. Serum titers peaked at day 42 for 94% of goats vaccinated by either route of administration. There was a significant difference between SC and IM groups regarding the proportion of goats with detectable titers on day 21/28 (68% vs 0%, respectively) and day 180 (50% vs 89%, respectively), relative to day 0.


The 2 vaccination protocols (SC 21 days apart and IM 28 days apart) were similarly effective in mounting serum antibody response in goats. The SC route of administration appeared to have a more rapid onset of immunity, while the IM route may have produced a longer duration of immunity. These data may be useful in determining appropriate SARS-CoV-2 vaccination schedules in ruminants.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research