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Objective—To compare values for tibial plateau angle (TPA) obtained in dogs by conventional and digital methods.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—37 dogs with stifle joint abnormalities.

Procedures—In all dogs, radiographs of both stifle joints were obtained by conventional and digital means. On conventionally acquired radiographs, TPA was measured with a protractor and fine-point pencil in accordance with standard guidelines. A software program was used to measure TPA on digitally acquired radiographs. Two viewers with different levels of experience performed all measurements 3 times.

Results—For both viewers and both limbs, conventional TPA measurements were significantly correlated with digital measurements all 3 times. Conventional and digital measurements obtained by viewer 1 were significantly different from values obtained by viewer 2. However, inter-viewer and intertechnique differences in TPA measurements resulted in rotational differences of < 1 mm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that TPA measurements obtained with the digital method were comparable to those obtained by use of the conventional method. Subjectively, the digital method was easier to perform and faster and produced better-quality images.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine prevalence and radiologic and histologic appearance of vesicourachal diverticula in dogs without clinical signs of urinary tract disease.

Design—Original study.

Animals—50 dogs between 4 months and 17 years old representing 22 breeds that had been euthanatized for unrelated reasons; none of the dogs had a history or clinical signs of urinary tract disease.

Procedure—Retrograde positive-contrast radiography was performed, and radiographs were examined for macroscopic diverticula. Necropsy specimens from the urinary bladder vertex were examined by means of light microscopy for diverticula and signs of inflammation.

Results—17 of the 50 (34%) dogs had vesicourachal diverticula, and 1 additional dog had a urachal cyst. Fifteen of the 17 diverticula were macroscopic; surface area of the diverticulum could be measured radiographically in 13 of these dogs and ranged from 1 to 90 mm2. The remaining 2 diverticula were microscopic. Sixteen diverticula were intramural and 1 was extramural. Light microscopic signs of bladder wall inflammation could be detected in 5 dogs, 4 of which had macroscopic diverticula.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a high percentage of dogs without clinical signs of urinary tract disease may have vesicourethral diverticula. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of vesicourethral diverticula in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:383–386)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association