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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate intraoperative and postoperative complications and outcomes following subconjunctival enucleations with and without third eyelid removal in domestic rabbits.

ANIMALS

18 client-owned rabbits with ocular disease confined to the globe that underwent 20 subconjunctival enucleation procedures at a veterinary teaching hospital.

METHODS

Records were retrospectively reviewed for all enucleations performed at a veterinary teaching hospital from 2014 to 2022. A standard subconjunctival enucleation procedure was performed in all cases, with third eyelid removal in 2 surgeries and without third eyelid removal in the remaining 18 surgeries. Outcomes were assessed on the basis of observations in medical records and owner follow-up.

RESULTS

20 total enucleations were included. Reported reasons for enucleation included suspected or confirmed ocular Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in 9 rabbits, refractory glaucoma in 4 rabbits, and various intraocular diseases in 5 rabbits. The only intraoperative complication reported was hemorrhage during the third eyelid removal in 1 surgery. Postoperative complications included serous to mucoid discharge from the surgical site in 8 of 20 surgeries and swelling at the surgery site in 2 of the 8 cases that had discharge. Postoperative swelling spontaneously resolved within 3 months of surgery; postoperative discharge spontaneously resolved within 10 months of surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Subconjunctival enucleation with or without third eyelid removal in rabbits may be a viable enucleation technique to reduce the risk for intraoperative hemorrhage, but it can result in postoperative complications, including transient discharge and swelling at the surgical site.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of SC ceftazidime administered at 20 and 40 mg/kg to red-eared sliders.

ANIMALS

8 adult red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

METHODS

In a sequential, 2-period study with a 3-week washout period between treatments, ceftazidime was administered SC to turtles at 20 and 40 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from the subcarapacial sinus at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after ceftazidime administration. Plasma ceftazidime concentrations were quantified using reversed-phase HPLC.

RESULTS

Mean plasma half-life after 20- and 40-mg/kg dosing was 39.75 ± 8.0 hours and 33.03 ± 6.56 hours, respectively. Mean maximum plasma concentration after 20- and 40-mg/kg dosing was 71.0 ± 15.93 µg/mL and 120.0 ± 30.62 µg/mL, respectively. Mean plasma ceftazidime concentrations remained ≥ 8 µg/mL, the theoretical MIC for various reptile pathogens for all time points.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicate that ceftazidime dosed at either 20 or 40 mg/kg produces plasma concentrations exceeding the theoretical MIC of various reptile pathogens for at least 120 hours. An ideal dosing interval could not be determined, as all plasma concentrations remained above the threshold of interest for all time points. Follow-up studies should focus on establishing a dosing interval and more rigorous monitoring for potential adverse effects.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish pilot data on the plasma concentrations of SC amikacin at 2 doses in red-eared sliders and evaluate concurrent plasma biochemistry parameters.

ANIMALS

8 adult red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

METHODS

Amikacin was administered SC at target doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg with a 3-week washout period. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postadministration. Plasma amikacin concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma biochemistry analyses were performed before amikacin administration, 1 week post 5-mg/kg administration, and 1 week post 10-mg/kg administration.

RESULTS

Mean maximum amikacin plasma concentrations were recorded 24 hours after 5-mg/kg and 10-mg/kg dosing and were 17.5 ± 2.32 µg/mL and 23.6 ± 2.92 µg/mL, respectively. Mean plasma concentrations after 5-mg/kg dosing steadily decreased to 9.1 ± 0.92 µg/mL by 96 hours postadministration. Amikacin remained detectable in all plasma samples 3 weeks post 5-mg/kg dosing with a mean plasma concentration of 1.04 ± 0.22 µg/mL. Mean plasma concentrations after 10-mg/kg dosing did not decrease over the 96-hour study period. There were no clinically relevant changes in biochemistry parameters.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Amikacin persists at detectable plasma levels for at least 3 weeks after SC administration of a 5-mg/kg dose in red-eared sliders, which has not previously been reported in any species. No biochemistry changes consistent with renal toxicity occurred after either dose. Use caution with repeated amikacin dosing in this species until further studies can better characterize cumulative amikacin pharmacokinetics and toxic threshold.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the anesthetic effects of alfaxalone-ketamine-midazolam (AKM) and alfaxalone-ketamine-dexmedetomidine (AKD) in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

ANIMALS

9 male black-tailed prairie dogs.

PROCEDURES

Prairie dogs were anesthetized with AKM (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 1.5 mg/kg midazolam) and AKD (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 0.15 mg/kg dexmedetomidine) in a prospective, complete cross-over study. Atipamezole (1.5 mg/kg) after AKD or flumazenil (0.1mg/kg) after AKM was administered 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Onset of general anesthesia, physiologic parameters, depth of anesthesia, and time to recovery after reversal administration were evaluated for each treatment.

RESULTS

Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs that varied in duration. The median induction times for AKM and AKD were 82 and 60 seconds, respectively. The median recovery times for AKM and AKD were 27 and 21 minutes, respectively. There were no significant differences between protocols for induction (P = .37) and recovery (P = .51) times. All measured reflexes were absent in all animals at 5 minutes postinduction, with hindlimb reflexes returning prior to forelimb reflexes. Heart rate was lower but respiratory rate was higher in the AKD treatment. Body temperature decreased significantly for both protocols (P < .001) and was significantly lower with AKM than AKD (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs. For both protocols, heat support and oxygen support are indicated.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research