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Objective

To determine the most commonly isolated bacterial species associated with lower respiratory tract disease of dogs and to determine susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobial agents.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Sample Population

Transtracheal aspirates from 264 dogs with clinical evidence of lower respiratory tract disease.

Procedure

Records of microbiological analyses of transtracheal aspirates obtained from dogs with clinical evidence of lower respiratory tract disease were reviewed. Analyses performed included bacterial culture (anaerobic and aerobic organisms) and susceptibility testing (aerobic organisms). The medical record of each affected dog was evaluated to determine signalment and underlying condition.

Results

Bacteria were isolated from 116 of 264 (44%) samples, and 203 bacterial species were identified. Most (57%) of the samples from which bacteria could be isolated contained a single species, whereas 43% yielded cultures of mixed species. Bacterial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae (particularly Escherichia coli) were isolated most commonly (45.7% of samples contained members of this group), followed by members of the genus Pasteurella (22.4%), obligate anaerobes (21.6%). β-hemolytic Streptococcus (12.1 %), Bordetella bronchiseptica (12.1%), nonhemolytic Streptococcus/Enterococcus sp group (12.1%), coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (9.5%). and Pseudomonas sp (7.8%), The most active antimicrobial drugs (inhibiting > 90% of the isolates) for aerobic microorganisms encountered most often (E coli and Pasteurella sp) included amikacin, ceftizoxime sodium, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin sulfate.

Clinical Implications

Amikacin, ceftizoxime, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin may be rational choices for treatment of suspected infectious lower respiratory tract disease of dogs. before identification of the causative agent(s) and before results of susceptibility tests become available. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:55–58)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the cumulative incidences of malignancies and benign skin masses and the mean age at death or euthanasia in dogs with allergic dermatitis treated long-term with versus without oclacitinib.

ANIMALS

660 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify dogs with allergic dermatitis treated for ≥ 6 months with oclacitinib (exposed dogs; n = 339) versus other available treatments before the introduction of oclacitinib (nonexposed dogs; 321) and with ≥ 24 months of follow-up information available. Nonexposed dogs were age and breed matched with 321 of the exposed dogs; data for the remained 18 exposed dogs were included in statistical analyses. Results for cumulative incidences of malignancies and other variables were compared between groups, and the effect of daily maintenance dosage of oclacitinib on cumulative incidences of malignancies and other skin masses was evaluated within the exposed group.

RESULTS

No meaningful differences were detected in the cumulative incidences of malignancies and overall skin masses or the mean age at death or euthanasia for dogs in the exposed group (16.5% [56/339], 56.6% [192/339], and 11.2 years [n = 80], respectively) versus the nonexposed group (12.8% [41/321], 58.3% [187/321], and 11.8 years [71], respectively). There was no association identified between daily maintenance dosage of oclacitinib and odds of malignancy or benign skin masses for dogs in the exposed group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that long-term treatment with oclacitinib did not pose additional risk for malignancy in dogs; however, veterinarians should continue to observe FDA-approved label warning and precaution statements for oclacitinib and regularly screen for neoplasia in dogs with allergic skin disease treated with or without oclacitinib.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare pathologic changes of the horizontal ear canal associated with chronic severe otitis externa between Cocker Spaniels and dogs of other breeds.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—80 dogs with severe otitis externa that required total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for breed, sex, and age at time of surgery. Histologic specimens from the horizontal ear canal were evaluated by a single examiner for overall tissue response pattern and scored for sebaceous gland hyperplasia, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, ceruminous gland ectasia, fibrosis, pigment-laden macrophages, and osseous metaplasia.

Results—48 of 80 (60%) dogs were Cocker Spaniels. Thirty-five of 48 (72.9%) Cocker Spaniels had a predominately ceruminous tissue response pattern; only 9 of 32 (28.1%) dogs of other breeds had the same pattern. Other breeds most commonly had a pattern dominated by fibrosis (n = 13 [40.6%]); fibrosis was the predominant pattern in only 4 of 48 (8.3%) Cocker Spaniels. Discriminant analysis and K-means clustering of 4 histopathologic criteria correctly classified 75% of the dogs as Cocker Spaniels or all other breeds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cocker Spaniels are at increased risk for chronic severe otitis externa requiring total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy, indicating that earlier and more aggressive management of the primary otitis externa and secondary inflammation is warranted in this breed. Cocker Spaniels with chronic severe otitis externa have distinct differences in pathologic characteristics of the horizontal ear canal, compared with other breeds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: 1000–1006)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association