A 4-year-old female Staffordshire Bull Terrier (dog 1) and a 6-year-old male Yorkshire Terrier (dog 2) were evaluated because of left pelvic limb lameness.
Both dogs had a partial rupture of the left cranial cruciate ligament associated with a unilateral excessive tibial plateau angle (51° in dog 1 and 41° in dog 2) secondary to a growth anomaly.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Both dogs underwent a double-cut center of rotation of angulation–based leveling osteotomy combining rotation of the proximal fragment with a cranial closing wedge ostectomy. The procedure allowed leveling of the tibial plateau to a final angle of 11° in one dog and 10° in the other without perioperative complications. Both dogs had excellent functional outcomes ≤ 4 months after the surgery. No postoperative complications were reported during follow-up (12 months and 9 months for dogs 1 and 2, respectively).
Results for these dogs suggested that double-cut center of rotation of angulation–based leveling osteotomy can be considered as a viable treatment option for cranial cruciate ligament deficiency associated with excessive tibial plateau angle.
Objective—To evaluate risk factors for outcome for dogs with adrenal gland tumors with or without invasion of the caudal vena cava treated via adrenalectomy.
Animals—86 dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for treatment of adrenal gland tumors.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for treatment of an adrenal gland tumor from 1993 to 2009 were reviewed; data collected including signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test findings, treatments prior to surgery, findings at surgery including additional procedures performed and extent of caudal vena caval invasion (local invasion [caudal to the hepatic portion of the vena cava] or extensive invasion [cranial to the hepatic portion of the vena cava]), procedures performed during surgery, histopathologic diagnosis, perioperative complications, follow-up data, and necropsy findings.
Results—Of the 86 dogs, 14 had adenomas, 45 had adrenocortical carcinomas, and 27 had pheochromocytomas. Fourteen dogs had invasion of the caudal vena cava; of these tumors, 7 were locally invasive and 7 were extensively invasive. Risk factors for poor short-term survival (death within 14 days following surgery) were vena caval invasion, extent of invasion, pheochromocytoma, intraoperative transfusion, and postoperative factors including disseminated intravascular coagulation, pancreatitis, hypotension, hypoxemia, and renal failure. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for poor short-term survival revealed that extensive invasion was the most important factor. Regardless of extent of invasion or tumor type, long-term survival was possible.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Invasion of the caudal vena cava, particularly tumor thrombus extension beyond the hepatic hilus, was associated with a higher postoperative mortality rate, but did not affect long-term prognosis in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy because of an adrenal gland tumor.