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Abstract

Objective—To compare blood glucose concentrations obtained using a point-of-care (POC) analyzer, 5 portable blood glucose meters (PBGM), and a color reagent test strip with concentrations obtained using a reference method, and to compare glucose concentrations obtained using fresh blood samples in the PBGM with concentrations obtained using blood anticoagulated with lithium heparin.

Design—Case series.

Sample Population—110 blood samples from 34 dogs; glucose concentration of the samples ranged from 41 to 596 mg/dl.

Procedure—Logistic regression was used to compare blood glucose concentrations obtained with the various devices with reference method concentrations. Ease of use was evaluated subjectively. Percentage of times a clinical decision would have been altered if results of each of these methods had been used, rather than results of the reference method, was calculated.

Results—For 3 of the PBGM, blood glucose concentrations obtained with fresh blood were not significantly different from concentrations obtained with blood samples anticoagulated with lithium heparin. None of the devices provided results statistically equivalent to results of the reference method, but the POC analyzer was more accurate than the others. For some samples, reliance on results of the PBGM or the color test strip would have resulted in erroneous clinical decisions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although commercially available PBGM and color test strips provided blood glucose concentrations reasonably close to those obtained with reference methods, some devices were more accurate than others. Use of results from these devices could lead to erroneous clinical decisions in some cases. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:198–202)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of dietary supplementation with chromium (Cr) picolinate on health and response to IV glucose tolerance testing (IVGTT) in obese and nonobese cats.

Animals

7 obese and 12 nonobese cats.

Procedure

6 nonobese cats were untreated controls, whereas 6 different nonobese cats and 7 obese cats received oral administration of 100 μg Cr/d for 6 weeks. All cats were evaluated before and immediately after the treatment period by use of physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and IVGTT. Calculated values included glucose half-life, coefficient of glucose disappearance, insulin peak response, insulinogenic index, and insulin secretion rate determined at various times after start of IVGTT.

Results

Adverse effects on cats’ health were not observed during or after treatment, and significant changes in body weight, hematologic values, or most serum biochemical values were not detected. Serum potassium concentration decreased significantly after treatment in obese cats but was within reference range. Compared with nonobese cats, obese cats had significantly higher insulin peak response, insulinogenic index, and insulin secretion rate before and after treatment. Chromium supplementation did not alter responses to IVGTT in either treatment group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Dietary supplementation with 100 μg of Cr/d for 6 weeks is safe but does not affect glucose tolerance in obese or nonobese cats. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1360–1363)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine serum canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) antibody titers in healthy dogs brought to a veterinary hospital for revaccination.

Design

Case series.

Animals

122 dogs.

Procedure

Serum antibody titers were measured by means of hemagglutination inhibition (CPV titers) or serum neutralization (CDV titers) at the time dogs were brought to the hospital for revaccination. All dogs had been vaccinated between 271 and 1,665 days previously. Dogs were grouped by age, breed (purebred vs mixed breed), sex, and weight to determine whether these factors were associated with antibody titers. Serum CPV titers ≥ 1:80 and serum CDV titers ≥ 1:96 were considered protective.

Results

Breed, sex, and weight were not significantly associated with serum CPV and CDV titers. Age was significantly associated with CPV titer, with younger dogs having higher titers, but was not associated with CDV titer. Thirty-three of 122 (27%; 95% confidence interval, 19.0 to 34.9%) dogs had a less-than-protective CPV titer. Twenty-five of 117 (21%; 95% confidence interval, 13.6 to 28.4%) dogs had a less-than-protective CDV titer.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that, on the basis of serum antibody titers, the current practice of annual revaccination of dogs against CPV and CDV infection should be maintained. Measurement of antibody titers to determine whether revaccination is truly needed would seem justifiable in those dogs that have previously had an adverse reaction to vaccination. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:72-75)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An approximately 5-year-old sexually intact male alpaca was evaluated because of a right-sided maxillary mass that had recurred after previous surgical debulking.

Clinical Findings—Clinical, radiographic, and CT examination revealed an approximately 1.5-cm-diameter soft tissue mass associated with expansile osteolysis of the maxillary alveolar bone, beginning at the level of the right maxillary third premolar tooth extending caudally to the level of the rostral roots of the second molar tooth.

Treatment and Outcome—Right partial maxillectomy was performed, and histologic examination revealed an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma with osseous metaplasia. External beam radiation therapy to the tumor bed was initiated 1 month after surgery. Computerized planning was performed, and a total radiation dose of 48 Gy was prescribed in eleven 4.4-Gy fractions. Follow-up CT evaluations 6 and 58 weeks after radiation therapy was completed revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence. No clinical evidence of tumor recurrence was detected through 110 weeks after radiation therapy.

Clinical Relevance—The oral fibrosarcoma in the alpaca described here was successfully treated with surgical excision and adjuvant radiation therapy, resulting in excellent quality of life of the treated animal.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A retrospective study of stored feline serum samples was done to determine the infection rate of feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in central Missouri. Infected cats were compared with uninfected cats subjected to the same selection criteria on the basis of signalment, clinical signs, and cbc abnormalities. A significant incidence of virus infection was found in male cats. Neither age nor breed predilection could be identified. Infected cats were more likely to be anemic and leukopenic because of neutropenia. Cellulitis and neoplasia were more common in infected cats. A spectrum of disease severity was seen in infected cats ranging from no clinical signs to signs of severe chronic inflammatory disease. Infected cats were more likely to have clinical disease. Mean survival of infected cats was 24.4 months from the time of diagnosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine the effect of treatment with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) for puppies with neutropenia secondary to canine parvovirus infection.

Design—

Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—

23 puppies.

Procedure—

Diagnosis was confirmed by use of an ELISA for detection of canine parvovirus antigen in feces, and all puppies received standard treatment for parvoviral enteritis. All puppies had neutropenia (< 1,000 neutrophils/μl) at the time of admission to the hospital or within 4 days afterward. Eleven puppies were treated with rhG-CSF daily until neutrophil count was > 1,500 cells/μl; the remaining 12 puppies were not treated with rhG-CSF.

Results—

We did not detect any significant differences between groups regarding duration of hospitalization, neutrophil count when neutropenia was first detected, lowest neutrophil count, or time until neutrophil count was > 1,500 cells/μl.

Clinical Implications—

Results suggest that treatment with rhG-CSF may not be beneficial in puppies with neutropenia secondary to canine parvovirus infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:991-992)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate samarium Sm 153 lexidronam (153Sm-EDTMP) as a treatment option for dogs with bony tumors of the skull.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—Dogs with multilobular osteochondrosarcoma (MLO) or osteosarcoma (OSA) of the skull.

Procedures—Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital records from the Universities of Missouri and Florida from 1986 to 2006 were searched for dogs with primary skull tumors treated with 153Sm-EDTMP.

Results—25 dogs were initially evaluated, with 5 dogs subsequently excluded because of inadequate follow-up or unrelated death. Seven OSAs and 13 MLOs were diagnosed. Tumors involved the occipital and frontal bones (n = 10), zygomatic arch and maxilla region (6), palate (3), and mandible (1). No clinically important adverse effects related to 153Sm-EDTMP treatment were documented. Of the 20 dogs evaluated 21 days after injection with 153Sm-EDTMP, 4 had subjective improvement, 13 had progressive disease, and 3 had insufficient follow-up. On the basis of radiographic findings, metastasis was suspected in 1 dog; 16 dogs had no metastasis evident, and medical records were insufficient for 3 dogs. Survival time, defined as the 153Sm-EDTMP injection date to the date of death, ranged from 3 to 1,314 days (median, 144 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The subjective improvement in 4 patients and lack of clinical evidence of adverse effects suggested that 153Sm-EDTMP injection may be an option for the treatment of dogs with MLO or OSA of the skull when other treatments have failed or surgery is not possible.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the association between cancer chemotherapy and serum canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and rabies virus antibody titers in tumor-bearing dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—21 client-owned dogs with various malignancies and 16 client-owned dogs with lymphoma.

Procedure—In study A, serum antibody titers were measured by use of hemagglutination inhibition (CPV titers) or serum neutralization (CDV titers) before and at least 1 month after initiation of chemotherapy. Baseline values were compared with values obtained from a control population of 122 healthy dogs seen for routine revaccination. Titers were considered protective at ≥ 1:96 for CDV and ≥ 1:80 for CPV.

In study B, serum IgG titers were measured by use of immunofluorescent assay (CDV and CPV titers) and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT, rabies titers) at baseline and again at weeks 5, 8, and 24 of a standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment of lymphoma. An IgG titer of ≥ 1:50 was considered protective for CPV and CDV. An RFFIT titer of ≥ 0.5 U/ml was considered protective for rabies virus.

Results—Significant changes were not detected in CDV, CPV, and rabies virus titers following chemotherapy in tumor-bearing dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that established immunity to CDV, CPV, and rabies virus from previous vaccination is not significantly compromised by standard chemotherapy used to treat tumor-bearing dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1238–1241)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the veterinary version of the bladder tumor antigen (V-BTA) test as a screening test for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the lower urinary tract of dogs.

Animals—229 client-owned dogs.

Procedure—Urine samples from dogs were shipped overnight to a single laboratory to facilitate testing within 48 hours of collection by use of the V-BTA rapid latex agglutination urine dipstick test. Groups of dogs included the following: 1) dogs with TCC of the lower urinary tract, 2) healthy control dogs, 3) unhealthy control dogs with non-TCC urinary tract disease, and 4) unhealthy control dogs without urinary tract disease. Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated by use of standard methods. Logistic models were developed to assess the effect of disease status, test conditions, urine composition, and signalment on the performance of the V-BTA test.

Results—A total of 229 urine samples were analyzed, including 48 from dogs with suspected (n = 3) or confirmed (45) TCC. Test sensitivities were 88, 87, and 85% for all dogs with (suspected and confirmed) TCC, dogs with confirmed TCC at any site, and dogs with confirmed TCC of the urinary bladder, respectively. Test specificities were 84, 41, and 86% for healthy control dogs, unhealthy control dogs with non-TCC urinary tract disease, and unhealthy control dogs without urinary tract disease, respectively. The test performed slightly better on centrifuged urine samples than on uncentrifuged urine samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our results indicate that the V-BTA test is useful in screening for urinary tract TCC in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1017–1020)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research