Objective—To determine the methicillin-resistant
profile of staphylococcal isolates from the skin of
dogs with pyoderma.
Animals—90 dogs with pyoderma.
Procedure—Staphylococci isolated from dogs with
pyoderma were tested for susceptibility to methicillin
by use of a standard disk diffusion test with oxacillin
disks. The DNA extracted from the isolates was tested
for the mecA gene that encodes the penicillinbinding
protein 2a (PBP2a) by use of a polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) assay. The expression of PBP2a
was determined with a commercial latex agglutination
assay. Species of staphylococcal isolates were
identified by use of morphologic, biochemical, and
Results—Most of the isolated staphylococci were
Staphylococcus intermedius isolates. Whereas only 2
of 57 S intermedius isolates were resistant to methicillin,
approximately half of the isolates had the mecA
gene and produced PBP2a. Staphylococcus schleiferi
was the second most common isolate. Widespread
resistance to methicillin was found among S schleiferi
isolates. More coagulase-negative S schleiferi isolates
were identified with mecA gene-mediated resistance
to methicillin, compared with coagulase-positive S
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The latex
agglutination assay for the detection of PBP2a
expression coupled with the PCR assay for the mecA
gene may provide new information about emerging
antimicrobial resistance among staphylococcal isolates.
(Am J Vet Res2004;65:1265–1268)
Objective—To determine prevalence of within-household sharing of fecal Escherichia coli between dogs and their owners on the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), compare antimicrobial susceptibility between isolates from dogs and their owners, and evaluate epidemiologic features of cross-species sharing by use of a questionnaire.
Sample Population—61 healthy dog-owner pairs and 30 healthy control humans.
Procedures—3 fecal E coli colonies were isolated from each participant; PFGE profiles were used to establish relatedness among bacterial isolates. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials was determined via disk diffusion. A questionnaire was used to evaluate signalment, previous antimicrobial therapy, hygiene, and relationship with dog.
Results—A wide array of PFGE profiles was observed in E coli isolates from all participants. Within-household sharing occurred with 9.8% prevalence, and across-household sharing occurred with 0.3% prevalence. No behaviors were associated with increased clonal sharing between dog and owner. No differences were found in susceptibility results between dog-owner pairs. Control isolates were more likely than canine isolates to be resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Owners and control humans carried more multdrug-resistant E coli than did dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Within-household sharing of E coli was detected more commonly than across-household sharing, but both direct contact and environmental reservoirs may be routes of cross-species sharing of bacteria and genes for resistance. Cross-species bacterial sharing is a potential public health concern, and good hygiene is recommended.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of 4 urovirulence genes in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy dogs and their owners and to determine whether detection of E coli strains with these genes was associated with a history of urinary tract infection (UTI).
Sample Population—61 healthy dog-owner pairs and 30 healthy non–dog owners.
Procedures—A fecal specimen was obtained from each participant, and 3 colonies of E coli were isolated from each specimen. A multiplex PCR assay was used to detect 4 genes encoding virulence factors: cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf), hemolysin (hlyD), s-fimbrial and F1C fimbriae adhesin (sfa/foc), and pilus associated with pyelonephritis G allele III (papGIII). Human participants completed a questionnaire to provide general information and any history of UTI for themselves and, when applicable, their dog.
Results—26% (16/61) of dogs, 18% (11/61) of owners, and 20% (6/30) of non–dog owners had positive test results for ≥ 1 E coli virulence gene. One or more genes were identified in fecal E coli isolates of both dog and owner in 2% (1/61) of households. There was no difference in the detection of any virulence factor between dog-owner pairs. Female owner history of UTI was associated with detection of each virulence factor in E coli strains isolated from their dogs' feces.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs and humans harbored fecal E coli strains possessing the genes cnf, hlyD, sfa/foc, and papGIII that encode urovirulence factors. It was rare for both dog and owner to have fecal E coli strains with these virulence genes.