Objective—To analyze and compare contents of the
preocular tear films of llamas and cattle.
Animals—40 llamas and 35 cattle.
Procedure—Tear pH was determined by use of a pH
meter. Total protein concentration was determined by
use of 2 microtiter methods. Tear proteins were separated
by use of electrophoresis and molecular
weights of bands were calculated. Western blot
immunoassay was used to detect IgA, lactoferrin,
transferrin, ceruloplasmin, α1-antitrypsin, α1-amylase,
and α2-macroglobulin. Enzyme electrophoresis was
used to detect proteases.
Results—The pH of llama and cattle tears were 8.05
± 0.01 and 8.10 ± 0.01, respectively. For results of
both methods, total protein concentration of llama
tears was significantly greater than that of cattle
tears. Molecular weights of tear protein bands were
similar within and between the 2 species, although
llama tears had a distinct 13.6-kd band that was not
detected in cattle. Lactoferrin, IgA, transferrin, ceruloplasmin,
α1-antitrypsin, α1-amylase, α2–macroglobulin,
and proteases were detected in both species.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Llama tears
have significantly greater total protein concentration
than cattle tears, whereas pH is similar between
species. Because little variation was detected within
species for the number and molecular weight of protein
bands, pooling of tears for analysis is justified.
Results suggest that lactoferrin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin,
α1-antitrypsin, α2-macroglobulin, α1-amylase,
and IgA are present in the tears of llamas and cattle.
(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1289–1293)
Objectives—To assess methods of detecting environmental
contamination with Salmonella organisms
and evaluate a cleaning and disinfection protocol for
horse stalls in a veterinary teaching hospital.
Sample Population—37 horses with diarrhea likely
to be caused by Salmonella infection and their stall
Procedures—Fecal samples were collected from horses
daily during hospitalization; samples were obtained
from stall sites after cleaning and application of disinfectants.
Fecal and environmental samples were cultured
for Salmonella spp and tested via polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect Salmonella DNA.
Results—1 horse died and 2 were discharged prior to
sample collection. Fecal samples from 9 of 34 horses
yielded growth of Salmonella organisms on bacteriologic
culture, and 23 yielded positive results via PCR
assay on ≥ 1 occasion. Among environmental samples
from 21 stalls, salmonellae were detected at ≥ 1 stall
site on 6 of 78 occasions, and ≥ 1 stall site yielded positive
results via PCR assay on 69 of 77 occasions.
Salmonella DNA was detected more frequently in samples
of stall drains, cracks, and corners. Salmonella spp
were cultured from samples of 3 stalls after both initial
and second cleaning and disinfection cycles, but no
organisms were detected in samples obtained after
use of a peroxygen disinfectant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that stalls in which horses with salmonellosis were
housed should only be used to accommodate newly
hospitalized horses after samples (collected after 2
cycles of cleaning and disinfection) from drains, cracks,
and corners yield negative results on bacteriologic culture.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1640–1644)