To determine whether ultrasonographic features in dogs with protein-losing nephropathy (PLN) were associated with renal biopsy findings and compare corticomedullary ratios between dogs with PLN versus non-renal disease.
71 dogs with PLN and 33 dogs without renal disease.
Medical records and archived ultrasonographic images for dogs with PLN that underwent renal biopsy between 2008 and 2018 were reviewed. Corticomedullary ratios were measured.
In dogs with PLN, median serum creatinine and BUN concentrations and urine-protein-to-creatinine-ratio prior to renal biopsy were 3.4 mg/dL (interquartile range [IQR], 1.2 to 5.3 mg/dL), 80 mg/dL (IQR, 28 to 105 mg/dL), and 11.4 (IQR, 6.4 to 18.3), respectively. Histologic abnormalities within the tubulointerstitial space were associated with cortical echogenicity. Gastric wall thickness > 5 mm was associated with a histologic diagnosis of acute glomerular disease. Dogs with immune complex–mediated glomerular disease were more likely to have abnormal gastric mural architecture. Other ultrasonographic features of the kidneys, liver, and stomach and the presence of ascites did not help to differentiate immune complex–mediated from non-immune complex–mediated glomerular disease, acute from chronic disease, or amyloid from non-amyloid disease or distinguish whether tubulointerstitial disease was present or absent. Median left corticomedullary ratio for 66 dogs with PLN (1.2) was significantly higher than that for the 33 dogs without renal disease (1.0).
Ultrasonographic features were poorly associated with specific pathological disorders in dogs with PLN. In this study, the corticomedullary ratio was higher in dogs with PLN, indicating the presence of cortical thickening, but the clinical relevance is unknown.
To evaluate the use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for the assessment of prostatic tumors in dogs and to compare results for TRUS with results for other imaging modalities.
10 client-owned male dogs.
Client-owned dogs identified with prostatic carcinoma were enrolled. Fluoroscopy, transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS), TRUS, and MRI were performed on all dogs. Tumor measurements, urethral penetration (identification of abnormal tissue within the urethral lumen), and tumor extension into the urinary tract were recorded for all imaging modalities. Agreement between results for MRI (considered the criterion-referenced standard) and results for other modalities were compared.
Median body weight of the 10 dogs was 26.3 kg (range, 9.4 to 49.5 kg). No complications were encountered during or after TRUS. Significant moderate to good agreements (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.60 to 0.86) among TAUS, TRUS, fluoroscopy, and MRI were identified for tumor length and height. Assessments of urethral penetration and tumor extension into the bladder with TRUS did not differ significantly from those made with MRI and were superior in terms of absolute agreement with MRI when compared with those for TAUS.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
TRUS was successfully and safely used to evaluate prostatic carcinoma in dogs. There was moderate to good agreement with MRI results for tumor height and length measurements, and TRUS was found to be superior to TAUS for some assessments. Transrectal ultrasonography can be considered an adjunctive imaging modality for the performance of prostatic interventional procedures or assessment of response to treatment.
To evaluate radiation exposure of dogs and cats undergoing procedures requiring intraoperative fluoroscopy and for operators performing those procedures.
360 fluoroscopic procedures performed at 2 academic institutions between 2012 and 2015.
Fluoroscopic procedures were classified as vascular, urinary, respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic. Fluoroscopy operators were classified as interventional radiology-trained clinicians, orthopedic surgeons, soft tissue surgeons, internists, and cardiologists. Total radiation exposure in milligrays and total fluoroscopy time in minutes were obtained from dose reports for 4 C-arm units. Kruskal-Wallis equality of populations rank tests and Dunn pairwise comparisons were used to compare differences in time and exposure among procedures and operators.
Fluoroscopy time (median, 35.80 minutes; range, 0.60 to 84.70 minutes) was significantly greater and radiation exposure (median, 137.00 mGy; range, 3.00 to 617.51 mGy) was significantly higher for vascular procedures than for other procedures. Median total radiation exposure was significantly higher for procedures performed by interventional radiology-trained clinicians (16.10 mGy; range, 0.44 to 617.50 mGy), cardiologists (25.82 mGy; range, 0.33 to 287.45 mGy), and internists (25.24 mGy; range, 3.58 to 185.79 mGy).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Vascular fluoroscopic procedures were associated with significantly longer fluoroscopy time and higher radiation exposure than were other evaluated fluoroscopic procedures. Future studies should focus on quantitative radiation monitoring for patients and operators, importance of operator training, intraoperative safety measures, and protocols for postoperative monitoring of patients.