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Objective—To identify cardiac mechanisms that contribute to adaptation to high altitudes in Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii).

Animals—9 male Tibetan antelope and 10 male Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries).

Procedures—Tibetan antelope and Tibetan sheep inhabiting a region with an altitude of 4,300 m were captured, and several cardiac variables were measured. Expression of genes for atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and calcium-calmodulin–dependent protein kinase II δ was measured via real-time PCR assay.

Results—Ratios of heart weight to body weight for Tibetan antelope were significantly greater than those of Tibetan sheep, but ratios of right-left ventricular weights were similar. Mean ± SD baseline heart rate (26.33 ± 6.15 beats/min) and systolic arterial blood pressure (97.75 ± 9.56 mm Hg) of antelope were significantly lower than those of sheep (34.20 ± 6.57 beats/min and 130.06 ± 17.79 mm Hg, respectively). The maximum rate of rise in ventricular pressure in antelope was similar to that in Tibetan sheep, but after exposure to air providing a fraction of inspired oxygen of 14.6% or 12.5% (ie, hypoxic conditions), the maximum rate of rise in ventricular pressure of the antelope increased significantly to 145.1% or 148.1%, respectively, whereas that of the sheep decreased to 68.4% or 70.5%, respectively. Gene expression of calcium-calmodulin–dependent protein kinase II δ and atrial natriuretic peptide, but not brain natriuretic peptide, in the left ventricle of the heart was significantly higher in antelope than in sheep.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hearts of the Tibetan antelope in this study were well adapted to high-altitude hypoxia as shown by higher heart weight ratios, cardiac contractility in hypoxic conditions, and expression of key genes regulating cardiac contractility and cardiac hypertrophy, compared with values for Tibetan sheep.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To investigate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics of cytarabine delivery as a subcutaneous continuous-rate infusion with the Omnipod system.


6 client-owned dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology were enrolled through the North Carolina State University Veterinary Hospital.


Cytarabine was delivered at a rate of 50 mg/m2/hour as an SC continuous-rate infusion over 8 hours using the Omnipod system. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after initiation of the infusion. Plasma cytarabine concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A nonlinear mixed-effects approach generated population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates.


The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL), average time to Cmax was 7 hours (range, 4 to 8 hours; SD, 1.67 hours), terminal half-life was 1.13 hours (SD, 0.29 hour), and the mean area under the curve was 52,996.82 hours X μg/mL (range, 35,963.67 to 71,848.37 hours X μg/mL; SD, 12,960.90 hours X μg/mL). Cmax concentrations for all dogs were more than 1,000 ng/mL (1.0 μg/mL) at the 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-hour time points.


An SC continuous-rate infusion of cytarabine via the Omnipod system is feasible in dogs and was able to achieve a steady-state concentration of more than 1 μg/mL 4 to 10 hours postinitiation of cytarabine and a Cmax of 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL). These are comparable to values reported previously with IV continuous-rate infusion administration in healthy research Beagles and dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research