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Objective—To evaluate lateral ventricular size in clinically normal calves by use of computed tomography and to examine the relationships between ventricular height (Vh), ventricular area (VA), and ventricular volume (VV).

Animals—14 Holstein calves.

Procedures—14 calves underwent computed tomography of the head with transverse images acquired from the rostral aspect of the frontal lobe continuing caudally to the level of the foramen magnum. Hemispheric height, Vh, VA, and hemispheric area were measured on images obtained at the level of the interventricular foramen. Ventricular volume was calculated by multiplying the sum of VAs measured on each transverse image by the total slice thickness. The left Vh-to-right Vh ratio was calculated to determine the degree of ventricular asymmetry, which was categorized as normal (ie, symmetric) to minimally asymmetric, mildly asymmetric, or severely asymmetric.

Results—Mean ± SD values for Vh and the Vh-to-hemispheric height ratio were 4.96 ± 1.56 mm and 7.47%, respectively. The mean VA was 114.29 ± 47.68 mm2, and the mean VV was 2,443.50 ± 1,351.50 mm3. Normal to minimally asymmetric ventricles were identified in 13 calves, and mildly asymmetric ventricles were identified in 1 calf. Significant correlations were found between Vh and VA and between Vh and VV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results establish reference values for ventricular size in clinically normal calves and suggest that Vh measurement may be a simple and useful technique for examining size of the cerebral ventricles in calves.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic effects of intracameral lidocaine hydrochloride injection in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification.

Animals—12 healthy Beagles with healthy eyes.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 intracameral injections: 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution (0.3 mL) or an equivalent amount of balanced salt solution (BSS). All dogs were treated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IV) and cefazolin (30 mg/kg, IV), and tropicamide drops were topically applied to the eyes. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. The initial end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.2%. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, esophageal temperature, inspired and end-tidal isoflurane concentrations, and oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 minutes. The allocated agent was injected intracamerally after aspiration of the same volume of aqueous humor. Ten minutes after injection, phacoemulsification was performed. After surgery began, the isoflurane concentration was adjusted according to heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Pain scores were recorded before surgery and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 hours after extubation.

Results—Isoflurane requirements were significantly higher in the BSS group than in the lidocaine group. Mean ± SD time to administration of supplementary analgesia was significantly shorter in the BSS group (1.4 ± 1.2 hours) than in the lidocaine group (4.9 ± 1.2 hours).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intracameral lidocaine injection had significant analgesic effects in dogs undergoing cataract surgery. Results of this study suggest the value of intracameral lidocaine injection as an analgesic for intraocular surgery in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research