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- Author or Editor: Yoshihide Sasaki x
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Objective—To compare the mechanisms of heartworm (HW) extract-induced shock and endotoxininduced shock in dogs by determination of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) concentrations.
Animals—11 mixed-breed dogs (7 without and 4 with HW infections).
Procedure—Eight dogs were treated with 2 ml of HW extract IV, and 3 dogs were given endotoxin (Escherichia colili popolysaccharide [LPS]) at 40 or 400 μg/kg of body weight, IV. Changes in clinical and hematologic findings and serum TNF concentrations were examined from before treatment to 120 minutes after treatment in dogs given HW extract or from before treatment to 180 minutes after treatment in dogs given LPS. Tumor necrosis factor concentration was determined by cytotoxic assay, using WEHI-164 murine sarcoma cells, and plasma endotoxin concentration was determined in 2 dogs treated with HW extract, using the endotoxin-specific chromogenic test.
Results—Eight dogs developed shock 3 to 16 minutes after HW extract treatment. Rectal temperature did not change during examination. Serum TNF concentration was detected at a low concentration only 60 and 120 minutes after HW extract treatment, and plasma endotoxin was not detected during examination. In dogs treated with LPS, rectal temperature increased to > 40 C in 2 of 3 dogs, and serum TNF concentration began to increase 30 minutes after LPS treatment, reaching a maximum concentration by 60 minutes.
Conclusions—The cause and mechanism of HW extract-induced shock may be different from those of endotoxin-induced shock, because TNF, which was a pivotal mediator in endotoxin-induced shock, increased minimally in serum of dogs treated with HW extract. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:765–769)
Objective—To determine whether heartworm (HW) extract-induced shock in dogs is consistent with anaphylactic shock by examining the role of histamine.
Animals—6 mixed-breed dogs (3 without and 3 with HW infections) and 4 specific pathogen-free (SPF) Beagles.
Procedure—Four experiments were performed as follows: 1) 6 mixed-breed dogs were treated IV with 2 ml of HW extract, and plasma histamine concentrations were determined; 2) 4 SPF dogs were treated IV with 2 ml of HW extract and examined for shock; 3) sera from 6 dogs of experiment 1 and from 4 SPF dogs of experiment 2 that were obtained before HW extract treatment were tested for heterologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), using rabbits during a sensitization period of 48 to 72 hours; and 4) mast cell degranulation by HW extract was tested, using rat mesentery and canine cultured mast cells.
Results—Experiment 1: 6 dogs developed shock, and plasma histamine concentrations increased significantly from 0.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± SD) ng/ml before HW extract treatment to 44.6 ± 68.9 ng/ml at the onset of shock; experiment 2: all SPF dogs developed shock and had an increase in plasma histamine concentrations; experiment 3: sera from mixed-breed dogs without HW infection and from SPF dogs had negative PCA reactions; experiment 4: HW extract degranulated rat mesentery mast cells and released histamine directly from canine mast cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of our study indicate that an unknown mast cell-degranulating substances contained in HW extract may degranulate mast cells directly, consequently releasing histamine that may participate in the onset of shock in HW extract-induced shock in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:770–774)