OBJECTIVE To assess the contribution of antirotational pins (ARPs) and an intact fibula to the compressive strength of 4 tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) constructs (bone and implants).
SAMPLE 20 hind limbs from 10 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Each hind limb was assigned to 1 of 4 TPLO constructs (construct in which the ARP was removed, constructs in which 1 or 2 ARPs were left in place, and construct in which the ARP was removed and the fibula was cut). Following TPLO completion, all limbs underwent mechanical testing that included 10,000 cycles of cyclic axial compression followed by testing to failure at a displacement rate of 1 mm/s. Displacement during cyclic testing; load generated at 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mm of displacement; ultimate load; and failure type were recorded for each limb. Mean values were compared among the groups.
RESULTS None of the specimens failed during cyclic testing. None of the variables assessed during mechanical testing differed significantly among the 4 groups. During testing to failure, the majority (17/20) of specimens failed as the result of a long oblique fracture through the first screw hole in the distal segment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the axial compressive strength and stiffness of a TPLO construct were not significantly affected by the addition of 1 or 2 ARPs or the presence of an intact fibula. These findings appear to support removal of ARPs during uncomplicated TPLOs, but further research is warranted to assess the effect of ARP removal on bone healing and complication rates.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate.
SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers.
PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared.
RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.
Objective—To assess relationships of acetabular volume (AV), femoral head volume (FV), and portion of the femoral head within in the acetabulum (FVIA) with each other and with degrees of hip joint laxity and degenerative joint disease from youth to maturity in dogs predisposed to developing hip joint osteoarthritis (OA).
Animals—46 mixed-breed half- or full-sibling hound-type dogs.
Procedures—The distraction index (DI), AV, FV, FVIA, and degree of osteoarthritis (OA score) were quantified in 1 hip joint at 16, 32, and 104 weeks of age. Relationships among variables were evaluated within and between ages. Ratios corresponding to OA scores were compared within ages. Differences among 16-week ratios corresponding to 32-week OA scores and among 16- and 32-week ratios corresponding to 104-week OA scores were evaluated.
Results—Significant positive relationships existed between FV and AV across ages as well as between FVIA/FV and FVIA/AV and between DI and OA score across and within most ages. Such relationships also existed within these variables across most ages. Negative relationships of DI and OA scores with FVIA/FV and FVIA/AV within and among all ages were significant. Sixteen-week AVs, FVs, and FVIAs were greater and FV/AVs and OA scores were less than 32- and 104-week values. The 32-week FVIA/FV was less than 16- and 104-week values, and the 32-week FVIA/AV was less than the 104-week value. The FVIA/FV and FVIA/AV were lower and the DI was higher with higher OA scores within and among most ages.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Structural volumes in lax canine hip joints changed predictably relative to each other during growth, despite degenerative changes. Measures developed in this study may augment current diagnosis and treatment strategies for hip dysplasia in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate the reliability of a method for
inducing colic via small intestinal distention in horses
and to examine the analgesic potential of bilateral
electroacupuncture (EAP) at the Guan-yuan-shu (similar
to BL-21) acupoint.
Animals—5 healthy adult horses, each with a gastric
Procedure—A polyester balloon connected to an electronic
barostat was introduced into the duodenum via
the gastric cannula. At 2 specified intervals (before and
after commencement of EAP), the balloon was inflated
to a barostat-controlled pressure that induced signs of
moderate colic. Each inflation was maintained for 10
minutes. Heart and respiratory rates were continuously
recorded. Frequency of various clinical signs of colic was
recorded by 2 trained observers during various combinations
of balloon inflation and EAP. Each horse received
each of 5 treatment protocols (EAP at 20 Hz, sham EAP
at 20 Hz, EAP at 80 : 120 Hz dense:disperse, sham EAP
at 80 : 120 Hz dense:disperse, no treatment). Sham EAP
was at a point located 2 cm lateral to the Guan-yuan-shu
Results—Duodenal distention consistently induced a
significant increase in frequency of signs of colic.
None of the EAP protocols caused a significant reduction
in frequency of these clinical signs during distention.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The method
described is reproducible and highly controllable
method for inducing colic that involved duodenal distention
that should be useful in evaluating the efficacy
of various analgesic strategies. Bilateral EAP at the
Guan-yuan-shu acupoint was ineffective in reducing
signs of discomfort induced by this method. (Am J Vet