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  • Author or Editor: Wilson K. Rumbeiha x
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SUMMARY

Acetaminophen is widely used in human beings for analgesic purposes, but is one of the most frequent causes of poisoning in cats. Acetaminophen-poisoned cats develop methemoglobinemia and sometimes hepatic failure. To determine the benefit of using methylene blue, a treatment for methemoglobinemia, along with N-acetylcysteine (nac), the recommended treatment for acetaminophen-poisoned cats, groups of 3 male and 3 female cats each were given methylene blue nac, or both after administration of acetaminophen (120 mg/kg of body weight, po). Male cats seemed more susceptible than female cats to acetaminophen toxicosis, because 3 males died of hepatic failure (2 cats given acetaminophen/methylene blue and 1 given acetaminophen/nac/methylene blue). Although nac alone seemed to elicit the best overall response, methylene blue, alone or in combination with nac, may be useful in female cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether pamidronate disodium can reduce cholecalciferol-induced toxicosis in a dose-related manner.

Animals—20 clinically normal, 8- to 12-month-old male Beagles.

Procedure—All dogs were given 8 mg of cholecalciferol (CCF)/kg of body weight once orally, then were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 5 dogs each. Dogs were treated with IV administration of 0.9% NaCl solution (SC group), 0.65 mg of pamidronate/kg in 0.9% NaCl solution (LP group), 1.3 mg of pamidronate/kg in 0.9% NaCl solution (MP group), or 2.0 mg of pamidronate/kg in 0.9% NaCl solution (HP group) on days 1 and 4 after administration of CCF. Dogs were observed for 14 days, and serial blood samples were collected for serum biochemical, electrolyte, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 analyses. Urine samples were collected for determination of specific gravity. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by plasma iohexol clearance. Histologic examination of renal tissue was performed.

Results—One dog in the SC group was euthanatized 3 days after administration of CCF because of severe clinical signs of toxicosis. Dogs in the HP group had significantly higher mean GFR (day 3), serum potassium concentrations (day 14), and urine specific gravity (days 7 and 14) and significantly lower mean serum creatinine concentrations and total calcium × phosphorus concentration product (days 4 and 7) than dogs in the SC group. Dogs in the HP group had no abnormal findings on histologic examination of renal tissue, dogs in the LP and MP groups had trace to mild mineralization of renal tissue, and dogs in the SC group had moderate mineralization and cellular necrosis of proximal renal tubules.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pamidronate disodium is a potentially useful drug to reduce CCFinduced toxicosis and other causes of hypercalcemia associated with increased bone resorption in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:9–13)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine whether pamidronate di-sodium can reduce vitamin D3-induced hypercalcemia in dogs and whether combination treatment with calcitonin is more effective than treatment with pamidronate alone.

Animals

20 clinically normal male Beagles.

Procedure

All dogs were given 8 mg of cholecalciferol (CCF)/kg of body weight once orally, then were assigned randomly to 4 groups of 5 dogs each. Dogs were given 0.9% NaCl solution IV (group 1), calcitonin SC and 0.9% NaCl solution IV (group 2), pamidronate and 0.9% NaCl solution IV (group 3), or a combination of all 3 agents (group 4). Dogs were observed for 28 days, and serial blood and urine samples were collected for determination of serum biochemical, electrolyte, and 25(OH)D3 values, CBC, and urine mineral excretion. Samples of kidney, stomach, lung, aorta, liver, duodenum, and brain were evaluated by light microscopy and quantitative mineral analysis.

Results

Two dogs in group 1 were euthanatized 4 days after CCF administration because of severe clinical signs of disease. Dogs in group 3 lost less weight and had significantly lower serum phosphorus, total and ionized calcium, and urinary zinc concentrations, compared with dogs in group 1. On day 4, serum urea nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in dogs of groups 3 and 4, compared with dogs in group 1. Mild to moderate mineralization of kidneys and stomach were observed in the 2 group-1 dogs euthanatized on day 4.

Conclusions

Pamidronate administration effectively prevents CCF-induced hypercalcemia and mineralization of soft tissues.

Clinical Relevance

Pamidronate is a potentially useful antidote against CCF toxicosis in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1092-1097)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research