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  • Author or Editor: William S. Swecker Jr x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of breed and oral vitamin E supplementation during late gestation on serum vitamin E and IgG concentrations in beef cows that calved in late winter and late summer and in neonatal calves.

Animals—73 Angus and 43 Hereford primiparous and multiparous cows and their calves.

Procedure—Cows in groups that were homogeneous regarding breed and age distribution were randomly allotted to groups that were orally supplemented (n = 59) or not supplemented (57) with vitamin E beginning 30 days prior to onset of 65-day calving seasons. Supplemental vitamin E was provided in a vitamin-mineral mix offered free-choice until parturition.

Procedure—Cows that calved in late winter and were supplemented orally with vitamin E had higher serum vitamin E concentrations at calving and after calving than did unsupplemented cows; differences between groups before calving were not significant. Calves from supplemented multiparous cows had higher vitamin E concentrations than did calves from unsupplemented cows. Winter-born calves from supplemented Hereford cows had heavier 205-day adjusted weaning weights than did winter-born calves from unsupplemented Hereford cows. Supplementation did not affect vitamin E or IgG concentrations in the herd that calved in late summer and did not affect calf growth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral vitamin E supplementation during late gestation may be economically beneficial in certain cow-calf operations in which late-gestation cows are consuming stored forages. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:921–927)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of breed and supplemental administration of vitamin E and selenium (Se) during late gestation on circulating concentrations of these micronutrients in periparturient Jerseys and Holsteins.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical study.

Animals—16 Jersey and 36 Holstein cows.

Procedure—Cows were allotted to blocks on the basis of breed and expected parturition date. Cows within blocks were randomly assigned to be given vitamin E or Se parenterally 3 to 4 weeks prior to anticipated parturition in a 2 × 2 factorial design.

Results—Results of ANOVA indicated Jerseys had higher blood concentrations of Se and lower serum concentrations of vitamin E than Holsteins at the end of lactation. Jerseys had higher blood concentrations of Se than Holsteins 3 to 4 weeks prior to parturition and at parturition. Selenium administration increased blood concentrations of Se at parturition. Administration of nutrients did not affect serum concentrations of vitamin E at parturition or 2 to 3 weeks after parturition or blood concentrations of Se 2 to 3 weeks after parturition.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Jerseys and Holsteins consuming rations of comparable Se content differ in blood concentrations of Se during the nonlactating period, suggesting breed-related differences in Se metabolism during late lactation and the nonlactating period. Parenteral administration of Se 3 to 4 weeks prior to anticipated parturition increased blood concentrations of Se at parturition; however, Se concentrations of both groups at parturition were considered within the reference range for clinically normal cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1052–1056)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A radiographic image-classification system was developed to analyze and compare the shape of the humerus of neonatal Labrador Retriever and Labrador Retriever × Beagle pups that were either phenotypically normal or affected with an ocular-skeletal dysplasia syndrome. The system consistently defined the shape of the humerus within the groups of pups studied and indicated a difference in the shape of the humerus between normal and affected pups. Results indicated that the radiographic image-classification system may be able to identify Labrador Retriever pups affected by the ocular-skeletal dysplasia syndrome at or shortly after birth.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Effects of selenium (Se) deficiency and supplementation on production of colostral immunoglobulins by beef cows and transfer of antigen-specific and nonspecific immunoglobulins to their calves were examined. Eighty beef cows, with marginal to deficient Se status (blood Se concentration, 50 μg/L), were allotted by breed and age to 1 of 4 Se treatment groups (n = 20/group): no supplemental Se; parenteral administration of 0.1 mg of Se and 1 mg of vitamin E/kg of body weight; ad libitum consumption of 120 mg of Se/kg of salt-mineral mix (smm); and parenteral administration of 0.1 mg of Se and 1 mg of vitamin E/kg plus ad libitum consumption of 120 mg of Se/kg of smm. All cows were inoculated IM with lysozyme. Cows consumed Se-deficient pastures or hay (21 to 62 μg/kg) during the study that began at mid-gestation and ended at postpartum hour 24. Although the concentration of specific lysozyme antibodies was not affected, cows given 120 mg of Se/kg of smm (treatments 3 and 4) had higher colostral IgG concentration (P < 0.002) than did Se-deficient cows (treatments 1 and 2). Calves from cows in treatments 3 and 4 had higher postsuckle serum concentrations of IgG (P < 0.01) than did calves from cows in treatments 1 and 2. Colostral IgM and calf serum IgM concentrations did not differ among treatments.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association