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SUMMARY

To evaluate the effect of diet on results obtained by use of 2 commercial test kits for detection of occult blood in feces, 5 dogs were fed 7 diets in randomized sequence. Dry and canned diets with various principal ingredients were evaluated. Each diet was offered twice over a 24-hour period, followed by a 36-hour nonfeeding period. Fecal specimens were collected twice daily, and tests for occult blood were performed within 12 hours. The dietary origin of fecal specimens was confirmed by use of colored markers fed with each diet, and was correlated with estimates of gastrointestinal tract transit time. A modified guaiac paper test and an o-tolidine tablet test were performed on each specimen.

Of 59 specimens, 4 were positive for occult blood, using the o-tolidine tablet test. Three positive results were associated with a mutton-based canned diet, and 1 positive result was associated with a canned beef-based diet. Of 59 specimens, 11 were positive for occult blood, using the modified guaiac paper test. Four positive results were associated with the mutton diet, and 3 positive results were associated with the beef diet. Of the remaining 5 diets, 4 caused 1 positive reaction.

Results were inconsistent with the null hypothesis that the distribution of positive occult blood test results is not affected by diet (P < 0.025), and indicate that diet can affect the specificity of peroxidase-based tests for detection of occult blood in canine feces. Diet modification prior to testing is recommended.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Cisplatin (90 mg/m2) was administered in a 5-minute bolus iv infusion to dogs at 8 am (n = 6) or 4 pm (n = 6). Blood and urine samples were collected over a 4-hour period for statistical moment pharmacokinetic analysis. Mean urinary excretion rate of total platinum was increased, whereas mean plasma residence time of ultrafilterable platinum was decreased, in the group treated at 4 pm (pm group), compared with those treated at 8 am (am group). Over a 2-week postinfusion-monitoring period, both groups of dogs developed decreases in creatinine clearance, urine/serum osmolality ratio (UOsm/SOsm), specific gravity, and increase in bun, serum creatinine concentration, urine γ-glutamyltranspeptidase/urine creatinine ratio (UGGT/UCr), fractional excretion of magnesium, and fractional excretion of phosphate. Urine specific gravity and UOsm/SOsm were significantly decreased, whereas UGGT/UCr and bun were significantly increased in the am group, compared with the pm group. The time of administration had a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin, which resulted in significant differences in cisplatin-induced renal toxicosis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate benign familial hyperphosphatasemia involving serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) in pups.

Design

Pups with markedly increased SAP activity were evaluated and compared with unaffected siblings, and with other unaffected Siberian Husky pups from the same colony.

Animals

8 related litters of Siberian Husky pups (n = 56).

Procedure

At ages 11 and 16 weeks, pups were given physical examinations and blood was obtained for hematologic and serum biochemical analyses (including electrolytes and isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase), ionized calcium concentration, and serum parathyroid hormone concentration. Diet, growth and health performance, skeletal radiographs, and genealogical data also were evaluated.

Results

Of 42 pups tested, 17 had markedly high total SAP values. Mean total SAP activity of affected pups at ages 11 and 16 weeks was over 5 times greater than mean total SAP activity of unaffected siblings and other unaffected Siberian Husky pups of the same age (P <0.001). Clinical, radiologic, and biochemical evaluation of the subjects revealed no other abnormal findings. The source of the increased SAP activity was characterized in 5 affected pups as bone isoenzyme. The mode of inheritance could not be deduced from the data, but the trait clearly is familial and autosomal.

Conclusion

The condition described in the family of Siberian Huskies bears similarity to human benign, persistent, familial hyperphosphatasemia.

Clinical Relevance

Benign familial hyperphosphatasemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of markedly increased SAP activity in young dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:612–617)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate immunomodulatory properties of all-trans retinoic acid and a fully oxidized β-carotene dietary product in calves with Mannheimia haemolytica–induced pneumonia.

Animals—Twenty-five 6- to 10-week-old male Holstein calves for experimental inoculations and three 8- to 30-week-old Angus heifers for blood donations.

Procedures—In vitro, neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from blood of healthy Angus heifers were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (1μM) or fully oxidized β-carotene (8.3 μg/mL) for various times and assessed for markers of cellular death, antimicrobial function, and production of proinflammatory leukotriene B4. Following 28 days of dietary supplementation with fully oxidized β-carotene, Holstein calves were experimentally inoculated with M haemolytica. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected at 3 and 24 hours after challenge inoculation and analyzed for markers of apoptosis.

Results—In vitro, all-trans retinoic acid and fully oxidized β-carotene induced cell-selective, caspase-3–dependent apoptosis in neutrophils, which subsequently enhanced efferocytosis in macrophages. Conversely, neither treatment altered phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate–induced oxidative burst, phagocytosis of nonopsonized zymosan (complement or antibody independent), or M haemolytica–induced leukotriene B4 production in bovine neutrophils. In vivo, fully oxidized β-carotene enhanced leukocyte apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as subsequent efferocytosis by macrophages without altering numbers of circulating leukocytes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutrophil apoptosis and subsequent efferocytosis by macrophages are key mechanisms in the resolution of inflammation. Findings for the present study indicated that all-trans retinoic acid and fully oxidized β-carotene could be novel nutraceutical strategies that may confer anti-inflammatory benefits for cattle with respiratory tract disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of tulathromycin in vitro and in experimental models of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae–induced pleuropneumonia and zymosan-induced pulmonary inflammation in pigs.

ANIMALS Blood samples from six 8- to 30-week-old healthy male pigs for the in vitro experiment and sixty-five 3-week-old specific pathogen–free pigs.

PROCEDURES Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from blood samples. Isolated cells were exposed to tulathromycin (0.02 to 2.0 mg/mL) for various durations and assessed for markers of apoptosis and efferocytosis. For in vivo experiments, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with A pleuropneumoniae, zymosan, or PBS solution (control group) with or without tulathromycin pretreatment (2.5 mg/kg, IM). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected 3 and 24 hours after inoculation and analyzed for proinflammatory mediators, leukocyte apoptosis, and efferocytosis.

RESULTS In vitro, tulathromycin induced time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis in neutrophils, which enhanced their subsequent clearance by macrophages. In the lungs of both A pleuropneumoniae– and zymosan-challenged pigs, tulathromycin promoted leukocyte apoptosis and efferocytosis and inhibited proinflammatory leukotriene B4 production, with a concurrent reduction in leukocyte necrosis relative to that of control pigs. Tulathromycin also attenuated the degree of lung damage and lesion progression in A pleuropneumoniae–inoculated pigs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Tulathromycin had immunomodulatory effects in leukocytes in vitro and anti-inflammatory effects in pigs in experimental models of A pleuropneumoniae infection and nonmicrobial-induced pulmonary inflammation. These data suggested that in addition to its antimicrobial properties, tulathromycin may dampen severe proinflammatory responses and drive resolution of inflammation in pigs with microbial pulmonary infections.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research