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  • Author or Editor: Troy N. Trumble x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the temporal pattern of prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in synovial fluid after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs and to correlate PGE2 concentrations with ground reaction forces and subjective clinical variables for lameness or pain.

Animals—19 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds.

Procedure—Force plate measurements, subjective clinical analysis of pain or lameness, and samples of synovial fluid were obtained before (baseline) and at various time points after arthroscopic transection of the right CCL. Concentrations of PGE2 were measured in synovial fluid samples, and the PGE2 concentrations were correlated with ground reaction forces and clinical variables.

Results—The PGE2 concentration increased significantly above the baseline value throughout the entire study, peaking 14 days after transection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse significantly decreased by day 14 after transection, followed by an increase over time without returning to baseline values. All clinical variables (eg, lameness, degree of weight bearing, joint extension, cumulative pain score, effusion score, and total protein content of synovial fluid, except for WBC count in synovial fluid) increased significantly above baseline values. Significant negative correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and peak vertical force (r, –0.5720) and vertical impulse (r, –0.4618), and significant positive correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and the subjective lameness score (r, 0.5016) and effusion score (r, 0.6817).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Assessment of the acute inflammatory process by measurement of PGE2 concentrations in synovial fluid may be correlated with the amount of pain or lameness in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1269–1275)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate effects of osteochondral injury on high-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) concentrations in synovial fluid (SF) from Thoroughbreds and to compare these results with radiographic and arthroscopic scores of severity of joint injury.

Animals—40 clinically normal rested Thoroughbreds (group 1) and 45 Thoroughbreds with osteochondral injury as a result of racing.

Procedures—SF was obtained from the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints, middle carpal joints, and radiocarpal joints. For group 2, radiographic and arthroscopic scores were determined. Concentrations of SF HMGB-1 were determined by use of an ELISA.

Results—SF HMGB-1 concentrations in osteochondral-injured MCP-MTP joints were significantly higher than in normal MCP-MTP joints. Similarly, SF HMGB-1 concentrations in osteochondral-injured carpal joints were significantly higher than in normal carpal joints. Radiographic and arthroscopic scores were not correlated with SF HMGB-1 concentrations. Synovial fluid HMGB-1 concentrations ≥ 11 ng/mL for MCP-MTP joints and ≥ 9 ng/mL for carpal joints discriminated osteochondral-injured joints from normal joints. Horses with HMGB-1 concentrations ≥ 11 ng/mL for MCP-MTP joints were twice as likely to have an osteochondral injury, and horses with HMGB-1 concentrations ≥ 9 ng/mL for carpal joints were 4 times as likely to have an osteochondral injury.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Osteochondral injury was associated with a significant increase in SF HMGB-1 concentrations in MCP-MTP and carpal joints, compared with results for clinically normal Thoroughbreds. Analysis of SF HMGB-1 concentrations may be useful for evaluation of joint injury in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether decreases in peak vertical force of the hind limb after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) would be indicative of medial meniscal damage in dogs.

Animals—39 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds.

Procedure—The right CrCL was transected arthroscopically. Force plate measurements of the right hind limb were made prior to and 2, 4, 10, and 18 weeks after transection of the CrCL. Only dogs with ≥ 10% decreases in peak vertical force after week 2 were considered to have potential meniscal damage. Dogs that did not have ≥ 10% decreases in peak vertical force at any time point after week 2 were assigned to group 1. Group 2 dogs had ≥ 10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 2 to 4 only. Group 3 and 4 dogs had ≥ 10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 4 to 10 only or from weeks 10 to 18 only, respectively. Damage to menisci and articular cartilage was graded at week 18, and grades for groups 2 to 4 were compared with those of group 1.

Results—The percentage change in peak vertical force and impulse area was significantly different in groups 2 (n = 4), 3 (4), and 4 (4) at the end of each measurement period (weeks 4, 10, and 18, respectively) than in group 1 (27). The meniscal grade for groups 2 to 4 was significantly higher than for group 1. A ≥ 10% decrease in peak vertical force had sensitivity of 52% and accuracy of 72% for identifying dogs with moderate to severe medial meniscal damage.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with transected or ruptured CrCLs, force plate analysis can detect acute exacerbation of lameness, which may be the result of secondary meniscal damage, and provide an objective noninvasive technique that delineates the temporal pattern of medial meniscal injury. ( Am J Vet Res 2005;66:156–163)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of horse age, osteochondral injury, and joint type on a synthesis biomarker and 3 degradative biomarkers of type II collagen in Thoroughbreds.

Animals—Healthy rested adult (3- to 12-year-old) Thoroughbreds (n = 19), yearling (1- to 2-year-old) Thoroughbreds (40), and Thoroughbred racehorses (2 to 7 years old) undergoing arthroscopic surgery for removal of osteochondral fragments that resulted from training or racing (41).

Procedures—Samples of blood and metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal, or carpal joint synovial fluid (SF) were collected from all horses. Commercially available assays were used to analyze SF and serum concentrations of type II collagen biomarkers of synthesis (carboxy propeptide of type II collagen [CPII]) and degradation (cross-linked C-telopeptide fragments of type II collagen [CTX II], neoepitope generated by collagenase cleavage of type I and II collagen [C1,2C], and neoepitope generated by collagenase cleavage of type II collagen [C2C]).

Results—Osteochondral injury affected concentrations of CPII, CTX II, C1,2C, and C2C in SF, serum, or both, compared with concentrations in healthy adult horses. Compared with adult horses, yearling horses had increased SF or serum concentrations of degradative biomarkers (CTX II, C1,2C, and C2C). Concentrations were higher in carpal than metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints for all biomarkers in osteochondral-injured horses. Variable differences in SF concentrations between joint types were detected in healthy adult and yearling horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horse age, osteochondral injury, and joint type all significantly affected type II collagen biomarker concentrations in SF and serum of Thoroughbreds.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of exercise and osteochondral injury on concentrations of carboxy-terminal telopeptide fragments of type II collagen (CTX-II) in synovial fluid (SF) and serum of Thoroughbred racehorses and to compare findings with radiographic and arthroscopic scores of joint injury severity.

Animals—78 Thoroughbreds with (n = 38) and without (40) osteochondral injury.

Procedures—Serum and metacarpophalangeal or carpal joint SF samples were collected from noninjured horses before and at the end of 5 to 6 months of race training (pre- and postexercise samples, respectively) and from horses with osteochondral injury (1 joint assessed/horse). Synovial fluid and serum CTX-II concentrations were determined by use of an ELISA. Radiographic and arthroscopic scores of joint injury severity were determined for the injured horses.

Results—The CTX-II concentrations in SF and SF:serum CTX-II ratio were significantly higher for horses with joint injuries, compared with pre- and postexercise findings in noninjured horses. Serum CTX-II concentrations in postexercise and injured-horse samples were significantly lower than values in pre-exercise samples. On the basis of serum and SF CTX-II concentrations and SF:serum CTX-II ratio, 64% to 93% of serum and SF samples were correctly classified into their appropriate group (pre-exercise, postexercise, or injured-joint samples). In horses with joint injuries, arthroscopic scores were positively correlated with radiographic scores, but neither score correlated with SF or serum CTX-II concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that serum and SF CTX-II concentrations and SF:serum CTX-II ratio may be used to detect cartilage degradation in horses with joint injury.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) concentrations in serum, plasma, and synovial fluid differed among untrained, race-trained, and osteochondral-injured Thoroughbred racehorses.

Animals—22 racehorses without osteochondral injury and 37 racehorses with osteochondral injury.

Procedures—Horses without osteochondral injury were examined before and after 5 to 6 months of race training. Horses with osteochondral injury were undergoing arthroscopic surgery for removal of osteochondral fragments from carpal or metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints (fetlock joints). Serum, plasma, and fetlock or carpal synovial fluid samples were obtained and analyzed for SDF-1 concentration by use of an ELISA.

Results—In horses with fetlock or carpal joint injury, mean synovial fluid SDF-1 concentrations were significantly higher, serum SDF-1 concentrations were significantly lower, and synovial fluid-to-serum SDF-1 ratios were significantly higher than in untrained and trained horses. Synovial fluid SDF-1 concentrations were not significantly different between trained and untrained horses. Plasma SDF-1 concentrations were not different among the 3 groups. Results obtained with serum, compared with synovial fluid and plasma, had better sensitivity for differentiating between osteochondral-injured horses and uninjured horses. In horses with fetlock joint osteochondral injury, serum SDF-1 concentrations were correlated with radiographic and arthroscopic inflammation scores, but not arthroscopic cartilage scores.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that serum SDF-1 concentrations were more sensitive than plasma and synovial fluid concentrations for detection of osteochondral injury in the fetlock or carpal joint of racehorses. Analysis of serum and synovial SDF-1 concentrations in horses with experimentally induced joint injury may help define the onset and progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and aid in the evaluation of anti-inflammatory treatments.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of zoledronate on markers of bone metabolism in dogs after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL).

Animals—21 adult dogs.

Procedure—Unilateral CrCL transection was performed arthroscopically. Dogs were allocated to 3 groups (control group, low-dose zoledronate [10 µg/kg, SC, q 90 d for 12 months], and high-dose zoledronate [25 µg/kg, SC, q 90 d for 12 months]). Serum osteocalcin (OC), serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and urine pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined in the distal portion of the femur and proximal portion of the tibia via computed tomography at each time point. Data were analyzed by a repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results—Zoledronate inhibited OC in the high-dose group at 9 and 12 months and at 12 months in the low-dose group, compared with the control group. High-dose zoledronate decreased BAP concentrations 3 and 9 months after surgery. In the control group, BMD was decreased in the femoral condyle and caudal tibial plateau. Zoledronate prevented significant BMD decreases starting 1 month after transection, compared with control dogs. In the caudomedial aspect of the tibial plateau, both zoledronate groups had significant increases in BMD after 3 months, compared with control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Zoledronate may reduce subchondral bone loss and effect markers of bone metabolism in dogs with experimentally induced instability of the stifle joint and subsequent development of osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1487–1495)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess effects of zoledronic acid on biomarkers, radiographic scores, and gross articular cartilage changes in dogs with induced osteoarthritis.

Animals—21 purpose-bred hound-type dogs.

Procedures—The left stifle joint of each dog was examined arthroscopically to determine initial articular cartilage status, which was followed by cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) transection to induce osteoarthritis. Dogs were assigned to 3 groups (control group, low dose [10 μg of zoledronic acid/kg], or high dose [25 μg of zoledronic acid/kg). Treatments were administered SC every 3 months for 1 year beginning the day after CrCL transection. Serum and synovial fluid samples and radiographs were obtained 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after transection. At 12 months, each joint was scored for cartilage defects. Serum and synovial fluid biomarkers of bone and cartilage turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, type I and II collagen, carboxy-propeptide of type II collagen, and chondroitin sulfate 846) were analyzed with ELISAs.

Results—The high-dose group had fewer total articular defects and lower severity scores in CrCL-transected stifle joints than did the control group. In addition, the high-dose group had significantly less change in collagenase cleavage of type I or II collagen in the synovial fluid at 1 and 3 months after CrCL transection than did the control group and also had greater changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in synovial fluid at 3 months after CrCL transection than did the control group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Zoledronic acid had a chondroprotective effect in dogs with a transected CrCL.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses from the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) to the navicular bursa, diffusion is direct or systemic, and addition of sodium hyaluronan has an effect on diffusion in horses.

Animals—11 adult horses without forelimb lameness.

Procedures—1 randomly chosen forelimb DIPJ of each horse received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 20 mg of sodium hyaluronan (group 1), and the contralateral forelimb DIPJ received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 2 mL of lactated Ringer's solution (group 2). Synovial fluid samples were taken from both forelimb navicular bursae and 1 hind limb navicular bursa (systemic control group) at 6 hours. Triamcinolone acetonide concentrations in synovial fluid were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography plus tandem mass spectrometry. Data were logarithmically transformed, and contrast analysis was performed on the 3 groups.

Results—Triamcinolone acetonide was detected in navicular bursal samples in all groups. Groups 1 and 2 had significantly greater concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide than the systemic control group. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Triamcinolone acetonide diffused directly from the DIPJ into the navicular bursa in clinically normal horses, and diffusion was not affected by addition of hyaluronan. Injection into the DIPJ with triamcinolone acetonide or a triamcinolone acetonide–hyaluronan combination can potentially be used for treatment of navicular syndrome, but further studies are needed to determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses similarly in horses with navicular syndrome.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare isolated limb retrograde venous injection (ILRVI) and isolated limb infusion (ILI) for delivery of amikacin to the synovial fluid of the distal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints and to evaluate the efficacy of use of an Esmarch tourniquet in standing horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were randomly assigned in a crossover design. In ILRVI, the injection consisted of 1 g of amikacin diluted to a total volume of 60 mL administered during a 3-minute period. In ILI, the infusion consisted of 1 g of amikacin diluted to 40 mL administered during a 3-minute period followed by administration of boluses of diluent (82 mL total) to maintain vascular pressure. During ILI, the infusate and blood were circulated from the venous to the arterial circulation in 5-mL aliquots. Synovial fluid and serum samples were obtained to determine maximum amikacin concentrations and tourniquet leakage, respectively.

Results—Both techniques yielded synovial concentrations of amikacin > 10 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 90% of isolates (80 μg/mL) and > 10 times the MIC breakpoint (160 μg/mL) of amikacin-susceptible bacteria reported to cause septic arthritis in horses. These values were attained for both joints for both techniques. Esmarch tourniquets prevented detectable loss of amikacin to the systemic circulation for both techniques.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both techniques reliably achieved synovial fluid concentrations of amikacin consistent with concentration-dependent killing for bacteria commonly encountered in horses with septic arthritis. Esmarch tourniquets were effective for both delivery techniques in standing horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research