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  • Author or Editor: Tomoko Takahashi x
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Objective—To examine pharmacokinetic interactions of flunixin meglumine and enrofloxacin in dogs following simultaneously administered SC injections of these drugs.

Animals—10 Beagles (4 males and 6 females).

Procedure—All dogs underwent the following 3 drug administration protocols with a 4-week washout period between treatments: flunixin administration alone (1 mg/kg, SC); simultaneous administration of flunixin (1 mg/kg, SC) and enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, SC); and enrofloxacin administration alone (5 mg/kg, SC). Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 24 hours following SC injections, and pharmacokinetic parameters of flunixin and enrofloxacin were calculated from plasma drug concentrations.

Results—Significant increases in the area under the curve (32%) and in the elimination half-life (29%) and a significant decrease (23%) in the elimination rate constant from the central compartment of flunixin were found following coadministration with enrofloxacin, compared with administration of flunixin alone. A significant increase (50%) in the elimination half-life and a significant decrease (21%) in the maximum plasma drug concentration of enrofloxacin were found following coadministration with flunixin, compared with administration of enrofloxacin alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The observed decrease in drug clearances as a result of coadministration of flunixin and enrofloxacin indicates that these drugs interact during the elimination phase. Consequently, care should be taken during the concomitant use of flunixin and enrofloxacin in dogs to avoid adverse drug reactions. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1209–1213)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize the clinical features of visceral mast cell tumors (MCT) without associated cutaneous involvement in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—10 dogs with histologically confirmed MCT without associated cutaneous lesions.

Procedure—Information on signalment, clinical signs, laboratory examinations, and time from first admission to death was obtained from the medical record of each dog.

Results—Purebred male dogs of miniature breeds appeared to have a higher prevalence of visceral MCT. Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea. Anemia (n = 7), hypoproteinemia (5), and mastocythemia (5) were detected. Treatments, including glucocorticoids, were not successful. Primary sites of tumors were the gastrointestinal tract (n = 6) and the spleen or liver (1); the primary site was not confirmed in the remaining 3 dogs. In 7 dogs, tumors were categorized as grade II or III, on the basis of histologic findings. The prognoses were poor, and all dogs died within 2 months after first admission.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visceral MCT is uncommon in dogs, and the prognosis is extremely poor. Biological behavior and drug susceptibility of visceral MCT may be different from cutaneous MCT. The lack of specific clinical signs may result in delay of a definitive diagnosis. The rapid progression of clinical signs and difficulty in diagnosis contributes to a short survival time. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 222–226)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To perform molecular cloning of the canine telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene and determine its expression in neoplastic and nonneoplastic cells.

Sample Population—9 canine tumor cell lines derived from various neoplasms, 16 primary canine tumors, and tissues from 15 normal canine organs.

Procedure—Tumor cell lines were derived from canine tumors that included osteosarcoma, mammary gland adenocarcinoma, melanoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma, and mastocytoma and a canine primary fibroblast culture. Canine TERT complementary DNA (cDNA) was amplified by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Expression of TERT mRNA was examined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. Telomerase activity was measured by use of the telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay.

Results—The canine TERT cDNA clone was 237 base pairs in length and contained a central region encoding the reverse transcriptase motif 2. Expression of TERT mRNA was detected in canine tumor cell lines that had telomerase activity but not in telomerasenegative canine primary fibroblasts. The TERT mRNA was detected in 13 of 16 canine tumor tissues and several normal tissues such as liver, ovary, lymph node, and thymus. A significant correlation between TERT expression level and telomerase activity was noted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Expression of TERT mRNA was closely associated with telomerase activity in neoplastic cells as well as some non-neoplastic cells from dogs. In addition to telomerase activity, expression of TERT mRNA can be used as a marker of tumor cells. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1395–1400)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research