To determine whether addition of an optional clinical skills laboratory (OCSL) to the traditional surgery curriculum would affect total surgery time or incision closure time in veterinary students performing ovariohysterectomy of a dog during a third-year surgery course.
Retrospective and prospective study of veterinary student attendance at OCSL sessions and student performance during the third-year surgery course.
Students from the classes of 2012, 2013, and 2014 at the Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine.
For all students, total surgery time and incision closure time were recorded when students performed an ovariohysterectomy of a dog during their third-year live-animal surgery course. Times were analyzed to identify differences among classes and determine whether times were associated with number of OCSL sessions attended, previous experience performing ovariohysterectomies, or enrollment in an elective clinical skills course.
Total surgery and incision closure times were not significantly different between students in the class of 2012 (no access to the OCSL prior to the third-year surgery course) and students in the class of 2013 (ie, access to 4 OCSL sessions during the spring semester prior to the third-year surgery course). However, times were significantly shorter for students in the class of 2014 (ie, students who had access to OCSL sessions during the 3 semesters prior to the third-year surgery course) than for students in the other 2 classes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that attendance in the OCSL sessions was associated with improvements in surgical performance, as reflected in faster total surgery and incision closure times while performing an ovariohysterectomy during the third-year surgery course.
OBJECTIVE To characterize aminoaciduria and plasma amino acid concentrations in dogs with hepatocutaneous syndrome (HCS).
ANIMALS 20 client-owned dogs of various breeds and ages.
PROCEDURES HCS was definitively diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsy specimens (n = 12), gross and histologic appearance of skin lesions (4), and examination of skin and liver biopsy specimens (2) and presumptively diagnosed on the basis of cutaneous lesions with compatible clinicopathologic and hepatic ultrasonographic (honeycomb or Swiss cheese pattern) findings (2). Amino acid concentrations in heparinized plasma and urine (samples obtained within 8 hours of each other) were measured by use of ion exchange chromatography. Urine creatinine concentration was used to normalize urine amino acid concentrations. Plasma amino acid values were compared relative to mean reference values; urine-corrected amino acid values were compared relative to maximal reference values.
RESULTS All dogs had generalized hypoaminoacidemia, with numerous amino acid concentrations < 50% of mean reference values. The most consistent and severe abnormalities involved glutamine, proline, cysteine, and hydroxyproline, and all dogs had marked lysinuria. Urine amino acids exceeding maximum reference values (value > 1.0) included lysine, 1-methylhistidine, and proline.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hypoaminoacidemia in dogs with HCS prominently involved amino acids associated with the urea cycle and synthesis of glutathione and collagen. Marked lysinuria and prolinuria implicated dysfunction of specific amino acid transporters and wasting of amino acids essential for collagen synthesis. These findings may provide a means for tailoring nutritional support and for facilitating HCS diagnosis.