Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Timothy J. Miller x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of various routes of administration and number of doses of 3 commercially produced rabies vaccines on serum antibody responses and protection in mice challenged by intracerebral injection with fixed-strain rabies virus.

Animals—2,213 mice.

Procedure—Inactivated, adjuvanted rabies vaccines were administered to mice in either 2, 1, or 0 (control) doses via IP, IM, and SC routes, and mice were challenged intracerebrally with fixed-strain rabies virus.

Results—Vaccination route and dose number significantly influenced serum antibody responses and protection from rabies virus challenge, independent of vaccine strain origin and mouse strain, although mouse age significantly affected results. Extended challenge studies revealed that IM vaccination of mice resulted in the highest serum neutralizing antibody responses and protection levels equivalent to IP vaccination. Even multiple doses administered SC (a vaccination route used in dogs) resulted in poor serum anti-rabies neutralizing antibody responses in mice and were far less protective than other routes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest possible improvements for the current rabies vaccine potency test in mice by using 1 dose, the IM route, and a delayed time of challenge. These modifications would more closely model vaccination practices in target species and yield more accurate information regarding primary immunogenicity of a vaccine. (Am J Vet Med 2003;64:491–498)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effect of route of challenge and strain of rabies virus on efficacy of inactivated rabies vaccines in mice.

Animals—3,056 mice.

Procedure—Challenge was performed with fixed and street rabies virus strains by use of footpad and intracerebral routes as well as IM injection into the hip, shoulder, neck, and masseter muscles. Intraperitoneal and IM vaccination was performed with 1 or 2 doses of 1 of 3 vaccine-strain inactivated rabies vaccines. For 2 of the vaccine strains, the vaccines were adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted.

Results—Incubation periods were dependent on route, dose, and virus strain used for challenge. Use of an intramasseter challenge route with challenge virus-strain rabies virus, which more accurately models natural exposure to rabies virus, resulted in reproducible mortality rates in mice. Use of this route revealed that differences among vaccines and challenge virus strains affected mortality rate less than that observed in the National Institutes of Health potency test, even when street isolates of widely variant origin were used for challenge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results, combined with earlier data, support a proposal for a new rabies potency test that more closely models current vaccine administration practices and natural infection routes. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:499–505)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of vinorelbine in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—58 dogs with malignant tumors, including pulmonary carcinoma (n = 31), histiocytic sarcoma (9), mast cell tumor (5), lymphoma (4), melanoma (2), and 7 other tumor types (1 each).

Procedures—Medical records of dogs treated with vinorelbine from December 1997 to December 2012 were reviewed for data regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic test results, diagnostic imaging results, vinorelbine doses and dose frequency, surgery and radiotherapy details when applicable, other chemotherapeutics administered, and outcomes. Descriptive, comparative, and survival statistics were computed for all dogs and for dogs by histologic subgroup of tumors.

Results—Vinorelbine was administered palliatively to 44 (76%) dogs. One (2%) dog had a complete response for 162 days, 5 (11%) dogs had a partial response for a median duration of 91 days, 19 (43%) dogs had stable disease for a median duration of 68 days, and 19 (43%) dogs developed progressive disease after a median duration of 21 days. Clinical benefit was more difficult to assess in the remaining 14 (24%) dogs that received vinorelbine as an adjuvant treatment. Overall median time to tumor progression was 103 days (range, 5 to 1,533 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vinorelbine appeared to be effective in the treatment of several tumor types in dogs. Follow-up prospective studies of the clinical benefit of the drug in specific clinical scenarios will be necessary to support this conclusion.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare values of blood parameters in rockfish obtained by use of a point-of-care portable blood analyzer with values determined by a veterinary diagnostic laboratory, calculate reference ranges for various blood parameters in black rockfish, and compare values of blood parameters in clinically normal fish with those of fish with clinical abnormalities.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—41 captive adult black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and 4 captive adult blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus).

Procedure—Rockfish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate for collection of blood samples. Heparinized blood samples were immediately analyzed with a point-of-care analyzer. Blood sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, and glucose concentrations; Hct; pH; partial pressure of carbon dioxide; total carbon dioxide concentration; bicarbonate concentration; base excess; and hemoglobin concentration were determined. A microhematocrit technique was used to determine PCV, and a refractometer was used to estimate total plasma protein concentration. Paired heparinized blood samples were transported to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for analyses.

Results—Data obtained with the point-of-care analyzer were reproducible; however, values for most blood parameters were significantly different from those obtained by the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Fish with poor body condition had several blood parameter values that were lower than corresponding values in clinically normal fish.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Point-of-care blood analyses may prove useful in rockfish. Point-of-care data for a large number of clinically normal fish must be obtained for reference ranges to be calculated, and further assessments of clinically abnormal fish are necessary to determine the relevance of the data. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:255–265)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association