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SUMMARY

Aflatoxin (af)-contaminated and fumonisin B1 (fb 1)-contaminated (culture material from Fusarium moniliforme) diets were fed singly and in combination to growing cross-bred barrows. Six barrows (3 replicates of 2 each; mean body weight, 17.5 kg) per group were fed: 0 mg of af and 0 mg of fb 1/kg of feed (control); 2.5 mg of af/kg of feed; 100 mg of fb 1/kg of feed; or 2.5 mg of af plus 100 mg of fb 1/kg of feed for 35 days. The effects on production performance, serum biochemical, hematologic, immunologic, and pathologic measurements were evaluated. Body weight, gain, and feed consumption were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by af and af plus fb 1 diets. The fb 1 diet decreased feed consumption, and although body weight was numerically decreased, it was not statistically significant. Aflatoxin increased serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity and total iron concentration and decreased urea nitrogen concentration and unsaturated iron-binding capacity. The fb 1-alone diet increased serum GGT activity, whereas the af plus fb 1 diet increased serum aspartate transaminase, Cholinesterase, alkaline phosphatase, and GGT activities, increased rbc count, triglycerides, and total iron concentrations, and decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity and urea nitrogen concentration. For the most part, the effects of the af plus fb 1 diet on body weight and hematologic measurements could be considered additive. However, the effect of the af plus fb 1 diet on cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities was greater than additive and was a synergistic response. One pig in the fb 1-diet group and 2 pigs in the combination-diet group died. Postmortem lesions in pigs of the fb 1-diet group consisted of ascites and increased liver weight. Observations at necropsy for pigs of the af plus fb 1-diet group consisted of hydrothorax, ascites, pulmonary edema, gastric erosions and ulceration, and increased liver and spleen weights. The af diet increased relative liver weight and resulted in liver that was pale, rubbery, and resistant to cutting. Histologic lesions consisted of hepatic necrosis or degeneration, or both, with variable degrees of bile duct proliferation in barrows of the af-diet groups. Renal tubular nephrosis was observed in barrows of the fb 1-diet group, but this was not consistent in the af plus fb 1-diet group. Cell-mediated immunity, as measured by mitogen-induced lymphoblastogenic stimulation index, was decreased in barrows of the af and fb 1-diet groups, and values in barrows given the combination diet were significantly decreased from those in barrows given the single toxin diets. It was concluded that af and fb 1 (from culture material), singly or in combination, can adversely affect clinical performance, serum biochemical, hematologic, and immunologic values and induce lesions in growing barrows. For most of the variables we evaluated under our study conditions and dosages of toxins, measurements were affected more by the combination diet than by either single toxin diet, and the toxic responses could be described as additive or more than additive, particularly for induction of liver disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To examine the toxic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1(-containing culture material and deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated wheat diets on barrows.

Animals

24, 7-week-old crossbred barrows allotted to 4 equal groups of 3 replicates of 2 barrows/replicate.

Procedure

Barrows were fed diets for 28 days that were formulated as follows: no additional FCM or DON/kg of feed (control); 100 mg FB1/kg of feed; 5 mg DON/kg of feed; or 100 mg FB1 plus 5 mg DON/kg of feed. Body weight and feed consumption were monitored weekly. On day 28, blood samples were obtained for serum biochemical, hematologic, and immunologic measurements. On day 29, barrows were euthanatized and necropsies were performed.

Results

Analyzed mycotoxin content of diets were: none detected (control); 47 mg of FB1/kg of feed (FB1 diet); 4.5 mg of DON/kg of feed (DON diet); and 56 mg of FB1 and 3.7 mg of DON/kg of feed (FB1 plus DON diet). Differences were detected among groups of barrows for clinical performance, serum biochemical analytes, immunologic response, and histopathologic lesions.

Conclusions

Combining FB1-containing material and DON-contaminated wheat in the diets of growing barrows induces a more toxic response than that induced by either toxin singly. For many variables, the response could be described as additive; however, for some variables, responses were interactive in a greater-than-additive manner.

Clinical Relevance

Caution should be exercised when formulating swine diets that could contain FB1 and DON, because the condition induced by their combination is more severe than that predicted for each mycotoxin's toxicity. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1790–1794)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research