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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and clinical outcome in cats with blastomycosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—8 cats with naturally occurring blastomycosis.

Procedures—Medical records of the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital were searched for cases of blastomycosis in cats diagnosed via cytologic or histopathologic findings. Clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and clinical outcome were determined. Radiographs were reviewed for the 8 cases.

Results—All cats were systemically ill. Respiratory tract signs and dermal lesions were most commonly observed. All cats had radiographic evidence of respiratory tract disease. Seven of the 8 cats had ill-defined soft-tissue opacities (nodules or masses) or alveolar consolidation of the lungs. Antemortem diagnosis was achieved cytologically in 6 of the 8 cats, and 3 were successfully treated and survived.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In contrast to previous reports, diagnosis was achieved antemortem in most of the cats (all by cytologic identification of the organism). Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and outcome were similar to previous descriptions of this rare disease in cats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Data were collected from 104 Minnesota swine farms quarantined for pseudorabies virus (prv) infection. Each herd was serologically evaluated for the presence of antibodies to prv in finishing pigs. Herd management practices, swine housing design, and disease profiles were described for each farm. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with circulation of prv in the finishing pigs of farrow-to-finish farms. Sixty-seven (64%) of the herds had no serologic evidence of prv circulation in the finishing section, whereas 37 herds (36%) contained at least one prv seropositive finishing pig. The odds of a given finishing herd being seropositive for prv were 2.85 times higher if the finishing pigs were housed in confinement (P = 0.01), 2 times higher if Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae was a clinical problem in the herd (P = 0.03), 1.36 times less for each year that passed since the herd quarantine was issued (P = 0.01), 1.74 times higher if clinical signs of prv were reported (P = 0.04), and 1.52 times higher if animal protein was included in at least one of the rations (P = 0.08).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Animals—8 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

Procedures—A randomized crossover study was conducted. Each bird was anesthetized (anesthesia maintained by administration of 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen) and received 3 doses of each drug during a treatment period of 20 min/dose. Treatments were constant rate infusions (CRIs) of dobutamine (5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min) and dopamine (5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min). Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measurements, heart rate, esophageal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 were recorded throughout the treatment periods.

Results—Mean ± SD of the systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures at time 0 (initiation of a CRI) were 132.9 ± 22.1 mm Hg, 116.9 ± 20.5 mm Hg, and 101.9 ± 22.0 mm Hg, respectively. Dopamine resulted in significantly higher values than did dobutamine for the measured variables, except for end-tidal partial pressure of CO2. Post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that the changes in arterial blood pressure were significantly different 4 to 7 minutes after initiation of a CRI. Overall, dopamine at rates of 7 and 10 μg/kg/min and dobutamine at a rate of 15 μg/kg/min caused the greatest increases in arterial blood pressure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dobutamine CRI at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min and dopamine CRI at 5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min may be useful in correcting severe hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots caused by anesthesia maintained with 2.5% isoflurane.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess IgE response and cytokine gene expressions in pulmonary lymph collected from bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)-infected calves after ovalbumin inhalation.

Animals—Thirteen 7- to 8-week-old calves.

Procedures—The efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal lymph node of each calf was cannulated 3 or 4 days before experiment commencement. Calves were inoculated (day 0) with BRSV (n = 7) or BRSV-free tissue culture medium (mock exposure; 6) via aerosolization and exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin on days 1 through 6 and day 15. An efferent lymph sample was collected daily from each calf on days −1 through 16; CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets in lymph samples were enumerated with a fluorescence-activated cell scanner. Expressions of several cytokines by efferent lymphocytes and lymph ovalbumin-specific IgE concentration were measured. Each calf was euthanized on day 16 and then necropsied for evaluation of lungs.

Results—Mean fold increase in ovalbumin-specific IgE concentration was greater in BRSV-infected calves than in mock-infected calves. At various time points from days 4 through 10, percentages of T lymphocyte subsets and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratios differed between BRSV-infected calves and day −1 values or from values in mock-infected calves. On days 3 through 5, IL-4 and IL-13 gene expressions in BRSV-infected calves were increased, compared with expressions in mock-infected calves. Lung lesions were consistent with antigen exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In response to the inhalation of aerosolized ovalbumin, BRSV infection in calves appeared to facilitate induction of a T helper 2 cell response and ovalbumin-specific IgE production.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine resting rectal temperatures of Vietnamese potbellied pigs.

Design

Prospective clinical trial.

Animals

85 potbellied pigs on a single farm and 27 potbellied pigs examined at a veterinary teaching hospital for routine veterinary care.

Procedure

Rectal temperatures of the potbellied pigs on a farm were measured during the morning, afternoon, and evening. Rectal temperatures at the time of initial examination were obtained from medical records for the potbellied pigs examined at the hospital.

Results

Mean rectal temperatures for both groups of potbellied pigs were the same. Overall unadjusted mean ± SD rectal temperature was 37.6 ± 0.8 C (99.7 ± 1.5 F; range, 35.1 to 39.6 C [95.2 to 103.3 F]). However, diurnal variation in rectal temperature was found among the farm population of potbellied pigs. After adjustment for age and repeated sampling, rectal temperatures recorded during the morning were found to be significantly lower than temperatures recorded during the afternoon and evening (mean difference, 0.5 and 0.9 C [0.9 and 1.6 F], respectively), and rectal temperatures recorded during the afternoon were found to be significantly lower than temperatures recorded during the evening (mean difference, 0.4 C [0.7 F]). There was a significant inverse linear relationship between age and rectal temperature.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Rectal temperatures of Vietnamese potbellied pigs may be lower than the lower limit of the reference range reported for domestic pigs. Because of diurnal variation in rectal temperatures, it is important to compare temperatures obtained at the same time of day when assessing patients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:342–344)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To use CT-derived measurements to create a ferret-specific formula for body surface area (BSA) to improve chemotherapeutic dosing.

ANIMALS 25 adult ferrets (19 live and 6 cadavers).

PROCEDURES Live subjects were weighed, and body measurements were obtained by each of 3 observers while ferrets were awake and anesthetized. Computed tomography was performed, and a 3-D surface model was constructed with open-source imaging software, from which BSA was estimated. The CT-derived values were compared with BSA calculated on the basis of the traditional tape method for 6 cadavers. To further validate CT analysis software, 11 geometric shapes were scanned and their CT-derived values compared with those calculated directly via geometric formulas. Agreement between methods of surface area estimation was assessed with linear regression. Ferret-specific formulas for BSA were determined with nonlinear regression models.

RESULTS Repeatability among the 3 observers was good for all measurements, but some measurements differed significantly between awake and anesthetized ferrets. Excellent agreement was found between measured versus CT-derived surface area of shapes, traditional tape– versus CT-derived BSA of ferret cadavers, and CT-derived BSA of cadavers with and without monitoring equipment. All surface area formulas performed relatively similarly.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT-derived BSA measurements of ferrets obtained via open-source imaging software were reliable. On the basis of study results, the recommended formula for BSA in ferrets would be 9.94 × (body weight)2/3; however, this represented a relatively minor difference from the feline-derived formula currently used by most practitioners and would result in little practical change in drug doses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the level of agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) anesthetized with isoflurane.

Design—Validation study.

Animals—16 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

Procedures—Parrots were anesthetized, and a 26-gauge, 19-mm catheter was placed percutaneously in the superficial ulnar artery for direct measurement of systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial pressures. Indirect blood pressure measurements were obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector and an oscillometric unit. The Bland-Altman method was used to compare direct and indirect blood pressure values.

Results—There was substantial disagreement between direct systolic arterial blood pressure and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with the Doppler detector from the wing (bias, 24 mm Hg; limits of agreement, −37 to 85 mm Hg) and from the leg (bias, 14 mm Hg; limits of agreement, −14 to 42 mm Hg). Attempts to obtain indirect blood pressure measurements with the oscillometric unit were unsuccessful.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there was substantial disagreement between indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector in anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and directly measured systolic arterial blood pressure.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association