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Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after oral administration to captive elephants.

Animals—6 clinically normal adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

Procedure—Each elephant received a single dose of enrofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg, PO). Three elephants received their complete diet (pellets and grain) within 2 hours after enrofloxacin administration, whereas the other 3 elephants received only hay within 6 hours after enrofloxacin administration. Serum concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were measured by use of high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Harmonic mean half-life after oral administration was 18.4 hours for all elephants. Mean ± SD peak serum concentration of enrofloxacin was 1.31 ± 0.40 µg/mL at 5.0 ± 4.2 hours after administration. Mean area under the curve was 20.72 ± 4.25 (µg × h)/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of enrofloxacin to Asian elephants has a prolonged elimination half-life, compared with the elimination half-life for adult horses. In addition, potentially therapeutic concentrations in elephants were obtained when enrofloxacin was administered orally at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. Analysis of these results suggests that enrofloxacin administered with feed in the manner described in this study could be a potentially useful antimicrobial for use in treatment of captive Asian elephants with infections attributable to organisms, such as Bordetella spp, Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma spp, Pasteurella spp, Haemophilus spp, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus spp. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1948–1953)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish a reference interval for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determined by measuring serum clearance of a single IV dose of inulin in clinically normal cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and compare serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentration in cheetahs with GFR.

ANIMALS

33 cheetahs housed at 3 institutions.

PROCEDURES

A single bolus of inulin (3,000 mg/m2) was administered IV, and 5 serial blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum inulin concentration with the anthrone technique. The GFR was estimated with a modified slope-intercept method for the slow component of the serum concentration-versus-time curve. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations were measured in samples obtained immediately prior to inulin administration, and serum SDMA concentration was measured in stored samples.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD measured GFR was 1.58 ± 0.39 mL/min/kg, and the calculated reference interval was 0.84 to 2.37 mL/min/kg. There were significant negative correlations between GFR and serum creatinine concentration (r = −0.499), BUN concentration (r = −0.592), and age (r = −0.463). Serum SDMA concentration was not significantly correlated with GFR (r = 0.385), BUN concentration (r = −0.281), or serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.165).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A reference interval for GFR in clinically normal cheetahs was obtained. Further evaluation of animals with renal disease is needed to determine whether measuring serum clearance of a single IV dose of inulin is a reliable diagnostic test for early detection of renal disease in cheetahs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of 1 IM injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) in American black ducks (Anas rubripes).

Animals—20 adult American black ducks (6 in a preliminary experiment and 14 in a primary experiment).

Procedures—Dose and route of administration of CCFA for the primary experiment were determined in a preliminary experiment. In the primary experiment, CCFA (10 mg/kg, IM) was administered to ducks. Ducks were allocated into 2 groups, and blood samples were obtained 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 48, 96, 144, 192, and 240 hours or 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 72, 120, 168, and 216 hours after administration of CCFA. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents (CFAEs) were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were evaluated by use of a naive pooled-data approach.

Results—The area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from 0 hours to infinity was 783 h•μg/mL, maximum plasma concentration observed was 13.1 μg/mL, time to maximum plasma concentration observed was 24 hours, terminal phase half-life was 32.0 hours, time that concentrations of CFAEs were higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration (1.0 μg/mL) for many pathogens of birds was 123 hours, and time that concentrations of CFAEs were higher than the target plasma concentration (4.0 μg/mL) was 73.3 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the time that CFAE concentrations were higher than the target plasma concentration, a dosing interval of 3 days can be recommended for future multidose CCFA studies.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research