To investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and their inhibitors tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) gene expression and secretion during equine deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) tenocyte and macrophage (undifferentiated, proinflammatory, and regulatory) co-culture.
Third passage DDF tenocytes and donor-matched macrophages differentiated from peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes from 5 healthy horses ages 9–11 years, euthanized for reasons unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions.
Passage 3 DDT tenocyte aggregate cultures were co-cultured with undifferentiated (control), proinflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF pretreated and lipopolysaccharide + interferon gamma-primed; LPS+IFN-γ) or regulatory (interleukin-4 and interleukin-10-primed; IL-4 + IL-10) macrophages in direct and transwell co-cultures for 72 hours. MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP -1, -2 mRNA were measured via real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rtPCR). Co-culture media MMP -3, -9, and TIMP -1, -2 concentrations were quantified via ELISA.
Direct co-culture of DDF tenocytes with proinflammatory macrophages for 72 hours increased MMP-1, -3, and -13 mRNA levels whereas, MMP-9 mRNA levels decreased. Direct and transwell co-culture with proinflammatory and regulatory macrophages resulted in increased MMP-3 and decreased MMP-9 media concentrations. While direct co-culture with regulatory macrophages significantly increased TIMP-1 mRNA, overall, TIMP mRNA and culture media concentrations were largely unchanged.
Cell-to-cell contact between DDF tenocytes and macrophages is not essential to induce MMP gene expression and secretion. Co-culture systems offer a viable in vitro platform to screen and evaluate immunomodulatory properties of therapies aimed at improving equine intrasynovial tendon healing.
To investigate the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) on equine intrabursal deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and navicular bone fibrocartilage (NBF) cells in vitro.
Third passage DDFT and NBF cells from 5 healthy donor horses ages 11–17 years euthanized for reasons unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions.
Aggregate cultures were incubated with culture medium alone (control), 10 ng/mL IL-1β, 10 ng/mL IL-1β + 0.05 mg/mL MPA, or 10 ng/mL IL-1β + 0.5 mg/mL MPA for 24 hours. Extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expressions were assessed via real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). Culture media matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -3 and -13 concentrations were quantified via ELISA. Total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in the cell pellets and culture media was also assessed.
IL-1β and IL-1β combined with MPA significantly downregulated ECM gene expression to a greater extent in NBF cells compared with DDFT cells. IL-1β and IL-1β combined with MPA significantly upregulated MMP-3 culture media concentrations in DDFT cells only, and MMP-13 culture media concentrations to a greater extent in NBF cells compared with DDFT cells.
NBF cells were more susceptible to IL-1β and MPA-mediated ECM gene expression downregulation in vitro. These results serve as a first step for future work to determine intrabursal corticosteroid regimens that limits or resolve the inflammation as well as take into consideration NBF cell biosynthesis in horses with navicular disease, for which currently no information exists.
Objective—To compare in vitro expansion, explant colonization, and matrix synthesis of equine tendon- and bone marrow–derived cells in response to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) supplementation.
Sample—Cells isolated from 7 young adult horses.
Procedures—Tendon- and bone marrow–derived progenitor cells were isolated, evaluated for yield, and cultured on autogenous cell-free tendon matrix for 7 days. Samples were analyzed for cell viability and expression of collagen type I, collagen type III, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein mRNAs. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan syntheses were quantified over a 24-hour period.
Results—Tendon- and bone marrow–derived cells required 17 to 19 days of monolayer culture to reach 2 passages. Mean ± SE number of monolayer cells isolated was higher for tendon-derived cells (7.9 ± 0.9 × 106) than for bone marrow–derived cells (1.2 ± 0.1 × 106). Cell numbers after culture for 7 days on acellular tendon matrix were 1.6- to 2.8-fold higher for tendon-derived cells than for bone marrow–derived cells and 0.8- to 1.7-fold higher for IGF-I supplementation than for untreated cells. New collagen and glycosaminoglycan syntheses were significantly greater in tendon-derived cell groups and in IGF-I–supplemented groups. The mRNA concentrations of collagen type I, collagen type III, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein were not significantly different between tendon- and bone marrow–derived groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro results of this study suggested that tendon-derived cells supplemented with IGF-I may offer a useful resource for cell-based strategies in tendon healing.
Objective—To compare in vitro expansion of equine tendon- and bone marrow–derived cells with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) supplementation and sequential matrix synthesis with pulverized tendon and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I).
Sample—Cells from 6 young adult horses.
Procedures—Progenitor cells were expanded in monolayers with FGF-2, followed by culture with autogenous acellular pulverized tendon and IGF-I for 7 days. Initial cell isolation and subsequent monolayer proliferation were assessed. In pulverized tendon cultures, cell viability and expression of collagen types I and III and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) mRNAs were assessed. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan syntheses were quantified over a 24-hour period.
Results—Monolayer expansion with FGF-2 significantly increased the mean ± SE number of tendon-derived cells (15.3 ± 2.6 × 106), compared with bone marrow–derived cells (5.8 ± 1.8 × 106). Overall, increases in collagen type III and COMP mRNAs were seen in tendon-derived cells, compared with results for bone marrow–derived cells. After IGF-I supplementation, increases in collagen type I and type III mRNA expression were seen in bone marrow–derived cells, compared with results for unsupplemented control cells. Insulin-like growth factor-I significantly increased collagen synthesis of bone marrow–derived cells. Monolayer expansion with FGF-2 followed by IGF-I supplementation significantly increased glycosaminoglycan synthesis in tendon-derived cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tendon-derived cells had increased cell numbers and matrix synthesis after monolayer expansion with FGF-2, compared with results for bone marrow–derived cells. In vivo experiments with FGF-2-expanded tendon-derived cells are warranted to evaluate effects on tendon healing.
Objective—To evaluate tendon injuries in horses over a 16-week period by use of ultrasonography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Sample—Tendons of 8 young adult horses.
Procedures—The percentage of experimentally induced tendon injury was evaluated in cross section at the maximal area of injury by use of ultrasonography and MRI at 3, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks after collagenase injection. The MRI signal intensities and histologic characteristics of each tendon were determined at the same time points.
Results—At 4 weeks after collagenase injection, the area of maximal injury assessed on cross section was similar between ultrasonography and MRI. In lesions of > 4 weeks' duration, ultrasonography underestimated the area of maximal cross-sectional injury by approximately 18%, compared with results for MRI. Signal intensity of lesions on T1-weighted images was the most hyperintense of all the sequences, lesions on short tau inversion recovery images were slightly less hyperintense, and T2-weighted images were the most hypointense. Signal intensity of tendon lesions was significantly higher than the signal intensity for the unaltered deep digital flexor tendon. Histologically, there was a decrease in proteoglycan content, an increase in collagen content, and minimal change in fiber alignment during the 16 weeks of the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography may underestimate the extent of tendon damage in tendons with long-term injury. Low-field MRI provided a more sensitive technique for evaluation of tendon injury and should be considered in horses with tendinitis of > 4 weeks' duration.
Objective—To determine whether the effects of a high–molecular-weight sodium hyaluronate alone or in combination with triamcinolone acetonide can mitigate chondrocyte glyocosaminoglycan (GAG) catabolism caused by interleukin (IL)-1 administration.
Sample Population—Chondrocytes collected from metacarpophalangeal joints of 10 horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to joint disease.
Procedures—Chondrocyte pellets were treated with medium (negative control), medium containing IL-1 only (positive control), or medium containing IL-1 with hyaluronic acid only (0.5 or 2.0 mg/mL), triamcinolone acetonide only (0.06 or 0.6 mg/mL), or hyaluronic acid (0.5 or 2.0 mg/mL) and triamcinolone acetonide (0.06 or 0.6 mg/mL) in combination. Chondrocyte pellets were assayed for newly synthesized GAG, total GAG content, total DNA content, and mRNA for collagen type II, aggrecan, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2.
Results—High-concentration hyaluronic acid increased GAG synthesis, whereas high-concentration triamcinolone acetonide decreased loss of GAG into the medium. High concentrations of hyaluronic acid and triamcinolone acetonide increased total GAG content. There was no change in DNA content with either treatment. Triamcinolone acetonide reduced COX-2 mRNA as well as aggrecan and collagen type II expression. Treatment with hyaluronic acid had no effect on mRNA for COX-2, aggrecan, or collagen type II.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that high concentrations of hyaluronic acid or triamcinolone acetonide alone or in combination mitigated effects of IL-1 administration on GAG catabolism of equine chondrocytes.
Objective—To compare the effects of autologous equine serum (AES) and autologous conditioned serum (ACS) on equine articular chondrocyte metabolism when stimulated with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL)-1β.
Sample—Articular cartilage and nonconditioned and conditioned serum from 6 young adult horses.
Procedures—Cartilage samples were digested, and chondrocytes were isolated and formed into pellets. Chondrocyte pellets were treated with each of the following: 10% AES, 10% AES and rhIL-1β, 20% AES and rhIL-1β, 10% ACS and rhIL-1β, and 20% ACS and rhIL-1β, and various effects of these treatments were measured.
Results—Recombinant human IL-1β treatment led to a decrease in chondrocyte glycosaminoglycan synthesis and collagen II mRNA expression and an increase in medium matrix metalloproteinase-3 activity and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression. When results of ACS and rhIL-1β treatment were compared with those of AES and rhIL-1β treatment, no difference was evident in glycosaminoglycan release, total glycosaminoglycan concentration, total DNA content, or matrix metalloproteinase-3 activity. A significant increase was found in chondrocyte glycosaminoglycan synthesis with 20% AES and rhIL-1β versus 10% ACS and rhIL-1β. The medium from ACS and rhIL-1β treatment had a higher concentration of IL-1β receptor antagonist, compared with medium from AES and rhIL-1β treatment. Treatment with 20% ACS and rhIL-1β resulted in a higher medium insulin-like growth factor-I concentration than did treatment with 10% AES and rhIL-1β. No difference in mRNA expression was found between ACS and rhIL-1β treatment and AES and rhIL-1β treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Minimal beneficial effects of ACS treatment on proteoglycan matrix metabolism in equine chonrocytes were evident, compared with the effects of AES treatment.
To evaluate a novel prosthesis technique for extracapsular stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)–deficient stifle joints in adult cattle.
13 cadaveric bovine stifle joint specimens.
In the first of 3 study phases, the most isometric points on the distal aspect of the femur (distal femur) and proximal aspect of the tibia (proximal tibia) were determined from measurements obtained from lateromedial radiographs of a stifle joint specimen maintained at angles of 135°, 90°, 65°, and 35°. During phase 2, 800-lb-test monofilament nylon leader line was cut into 73-cm-long segments. Each segment was secured in a loop by use of 2, 3, or 4 crimping sleeves such that there were 12 replicates for each construct. Each loop was distracted to failure at a constant rate of 1 mm/s. Mean force at failure and elongation and mode of failure were compared among the 3 constructs. During phase 3, bone tunnels were created in the distal femur and proximal tibia at the isometric points identified during phase 1 in each of 12 CCL-deficient stifle joint specimens. The 3-sleeve construct was applied to each specimen. Specimens were distracted to failure at a constant rate of 1 mm/s.
Among the 3 constructs evaluated, the 3-sleeve construct was considered optimal in terms of strength and amount of foreign material. In phase 3, all replicates failed because of suture slippage.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Use of 800-lb-test monofilament nylon leader line as a prosthesis might be a viable alternative for extracapsular stabilization of CCL-deficient stifle joints in adult cattle. Further in vivo studies are necessary.
To investigate the chondroprotective effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), ampicillin-sulbactam (AmpS), or PRP combined with AmpS (PRP+AmpS) in an in vitro chondrocyte explant model of bovine Staphylococcus aureus–induced septic arthritis.
Autologous PRP and cartilage explants obtained from 6 healthy, adult, nonlactating Jersey-crossbred cows.
Autologous PRP was prepared prior to euthanasia using an optimized double centrifugation protocol. Cartilage explants collected from grossly normal stifle joints were incubated in synovial fluid (SF) alone, S aureus–inoculated SF (SA), or SA supplemented with PRP (25% culture medium volume), AmpS (2 mg/mL), or both PRP (25% culture medium volume) and AmpS (2 mg/mL; PRP+AmpS) for 24 hours. The metabolic activity, percentage of dead cells, and glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage explants were measured with a resazurin-based assay, live-dead cell staining, and dimethylmethylene blue assay, respectively. Treatment effects were assessed relative to the findings for cartilage explants incubated in SF alone.
Application of PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments significantly reduced S aureus–induced chondrocyte death (ie, increased metabolic activity and cell viability staining) in cartilage explants, compared with untreated controls. There were no significant differences in chondrocyte death among explants treated with PRP, AmpS, or PRP+AmpS.
In this in vitro explant model of S aureus–induced septic arthritis, PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments mitigated chondrocyte death. Additional work to confirm the efficacy of PRP with bacteria commonly associated with clinical septic arthritis in cattle as well as in vivo evaluation is warranted.
Objective—To compare viability and biosynthetic capacities of cells isolated from equine tendon, muscle, and bone marrow grown on autogenous tendon matrix.
Sample Population—Cells from 4 young adult horses.
Procedures—Cells were isolated, expanded, and cultured on autogenous cell-free tendon matrix for 7 days. Samples were analyzed for cell viability, proteoglycan synthesis, collagen synthesis, and mRNA expression of collagen type I, collagen type III, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP).
Results—Tendon- and muscle-derived cells required less time to reach confluence (approx 2 weeks) than did bone marrow–derived cells (approx 3 to 4 weeks); there were fewer bone marrow–derived cells at confluence than the other 2 cell types. More tendon- and muscle-derived cells were attached to matrices after 7 days than were bone marrow–derived cells. Collagen and proteoglycan synthesis by tendon- and muscle-derived cells was significantly greater than synthesis by bone marrow–derived cells. On a per-cell basis, tendon-derived cells had more collagen synthesis, although this was not significant. Collagen type I mRNA expression was similar among groups. Tendon-derived cells expressed the highest amounts of collagen type III and COMP mRNAs, although the difference for COMP was not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tendon- and muscle-derived cells yielded greater cell culture numbers in shorter time and, on a per-cell basis, had comparable biosynthetic assays to bone marrow–derived cells. More in vitro experiments with higher numbers may determine whether tendon-derived cells are a useful resource for tendon healing.