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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of clenbuterol, at a dosage of up to 3.2 μg/kg for 14 days, PO, on skeletal and cardiac muscle in healthy horses undergoing treadmill exercise.

Animals—12 healthy horses from 3 to 10 years old.

Procedures—Horses were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 6) or clenbuterol group (6) and received either saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or clenbuterol, PO, every 12 hours for 14 days. Horses were subjected to submaximal treadmill exercise daily during treatment. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected before and after treatment for determination of apoptosis. Echocardiographic measurements, serum clenbuterol and cardiac troponin I concentrations, and serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase were measured before, during, and after treatment. Jugular venous blood samples were collected every 3 days during treatment. Echocardiography was repeated every 7 days after beginning treatment. Response variables were compared between treatment groups and across time periods.

Results—No significant effect of clenbuterol or exercise on response variables was found between treatment and control groups at any time point or within groups over time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not reveal any adverse effects of treatment with an approved dose of clenbuterol on equine cardiac or skeletal muscle in the small number of horses tested.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare blood glucose (BG) concentrations measured with a portable blood glucose meter in blood samples obtained with a marginal ear vein (MEV) nick technique, from a peripheral venous catheter, and by direct venipuncture in healthy cats and cats with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy cats and 11 cats with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—On day 1, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and from a peripheral venous catheter. On day 2, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and by direct venipuncture of the medial saphenous vein.

Results—For all cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained from the peripheral venous catheter. For healthy cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture. For cats with diabetes mellitus, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture; however, for the range of concentrations examined, this difference was not clinically important.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that for the range of concentrations examined, the MEV nick technique is a reasonable alternative to venous blood collection for serial measurement of BG concentrations in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:389–392)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To identify correlations between ultrasonographic findings and specific hepatic diseases in cats.

Design

Retrospective study.

Sample Population

Medical records of 72 cats with a histopathologic diagnosis of hepatic disease and diagnostic-quality abdominal ultrasonograms between 1985 and 1997.

Procedure

Abdominal ultrasonographic findings in 72 cats with histologically confirmed hepatic disease (hepatic lipidosis excluded) were reviewed. Rather than attempt to combine individual ultrasonographic findings with specific hepatic diseases, 2 classification trees were created as models to correlate certain groups of abnormalities with specific hepatic diseases or with malignant and benign lesions of the liver. Sensitivity and specificity of classification trees were calculated.

Results

Use of a classification tree resulted in correct classification of malignant versus benign hepatic lesions in 88.9% of cats that had hepatic disease (sensitivity, 90.7%; specificity, 86.1 %). Use of a classification tree to distinguish individual types of hepatic diseases resulted in mostly accurate classification of hepatic lymphosarcoma (sensitivity, 70.5%; specificity, 98.2%), cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis syndrome (sensitivity, 87%; specificity, 90%), and benign lesions of the liver (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 86.4%). Criteria that helped most in differentiating among various hepatic diseases were abnormalities within other organs (spleen, lymph nodes) and appearance of the hepatic portal system. A correlation was not found between focal or multifocal appearance of hepatic lesions and specific hepatic diseases.

Clinical Implications

Use of classification trees to distinguish among specific hepatic diseases or between malignant and benign hepatic lesions provides potentially useful algorithms for ultrasonographic evaluation of cats with hepatic disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:94-98)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The effects of furosemide on the racing times of 79 horses without exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (eiph) and 52 horses with eiph were investigated. Racing times were adjusted to 1-mile equivalent racing times by 2 speed handicapping methods, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust actual racing times by winning time and distance for each race. All 3 methods of determining racing time indicated that geldings without eiph had significantly faster racing times (P < 0.05) when given furosemide before racing than when furosemide was not given before racing. Females and colts without eiph were determined to have faster racing times when furosemide was given before racing, but the difference was not significant. Geldings with eiph had significantly faster racing times (P = 0.0231) when given furosemide before racing, as determined by one of the speed handicapping methods. There was a strong correlation (range 0.9314 to 0.9751) between the 1-mile equivalent racing times, as determined by the 2 speed handicapping methods for horses with and without eiph. Furosemide failed to prevent the development of eiph in many horses that were previously considered to be eiph-negative. When given furosemide, 62 (25.3%) of 235 eiph-negative horses were eiph-positive after racing. Furosemide had questionable efficacy for prevention of eiph in known eiph-positive horses. Thirty-two (61.5%) of 52 eiph-positive horses given furosemide before a race remained eiph-positive after that race.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research