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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydoxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP) in the plasma of healthy cats after oral, IV, and IP administration of cyclophosphamide.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult cats.

PROCEDURES Cats were randomly assigned to receive cyclophosphamide (200 mg/m2) via each of 3 routes of administration (oral, IV, and IP); there was a 30-day washout period between successive treatments. Plasma samples were obtained at various time points for up to 8 hours after administration. Samples were treated with semicarbazide hydrochloride to trap the 4-OHCP in stable form, which allowed for cyclophosphamide and trapped 4-OHCP to be simultaneously measured by use of tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from drug concentration-versus-time data for both cyclophosphamide and 4-OHCP.

RESULTS Cyclophosphamide was tolerated well regardless of route of administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters for 4-OHCP were similar after oral, IV, and IP administration. Area under the concentration-time curve for cyclophosphamide was lower after oral administration than after IV or IP administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cyclophosphamide can be administered interchangeably to cats as oral, IV, and IP formulations, which should provide benefits with regard to cost and ease of administration to certain feline patients.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To assess histologic evaluation of mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (MRLNs) for metastatic disease during tumor staging for dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).


Retrospective multi-institutional study.


27 dogs with OMM and 21 dogs with OSCC.


Medical record databases of 8 institutions were searched to identify dogs with OMM or OSCC that underwent unilateral or bilateral extirpation of the MLNs and MRLNs during the same procedure between January 2004 and April 2016. Information extracted from the records included signalment, primary mass location and size, diagnostic imaging results, histologic results for the primary tumor and all lymph nodes evaluated, and whether distant metastasis developed.


Prevalence of lymph node metastasis did not differ significantly between dogs with OMM (10/27 [37%]) and dogs with OSCC (6/21 [29%]). Distant metastasis was identified in 11 (41%) dogs with OMM and was suspected in 1 dog with OSCC. The MRLN was affected in 13 of 16 dogs with lymph node metastasis, and 3 of those dogs had metastasis to the MRLN without concurrent metastasis to an MLN. Metastasis was identified in lymph nodes contralateral to the primary tumor in 4 of 17 dogs that underwent contralateral lymph node removal.


Results indicated histologic evaluation of only 1 MLN was insufficient to definitively rule out lymph node metastasis in dogs with OMM or OSCC; therefore, bilateral lymphadenectomy of the MLN and MRLN lymphocentra is recommended for such dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To assess (1) veterinarians’ knowledge and practices regarding disposal of euthanized animals, (2) the extent to which veterinarians communicate with their clients about potential risks of rendering pentobarbital-euthanized animals, and (3) the extent to which veterinarians communicate potential relay toxicosis and environmental risks of pentobarbital-euthanized animals to clients.


A stratified random sample of AVMA members.


Over a 3-week period in early 2021, 16,831 of the AVMA’s 99,500 members were surveyed, with 2,093 responses (a 12% response rate). Respondents were assigned to 1 of 3 categories on the basis of their answers: veterinarians euthanizing only food-producing species, veterinarians euthanizing only non–food-producing species, and veterinarians euthanizing both food-producing and non–food-producing species (ie, veterinarians euthanizing mixed species).


Veterinarians responding to this survey appeared to be aware of the major methods of animal disposal, and about 89% reported communicating the method of euthanasia with clients to help ensure appropriate animal disposal. However, the need for additional education on local, state, and federal laws and rendering, as well as on risks of relay toxicosis including wildlife predation and environmental impacts, was reported.


Survey results identified gaps in veterinarians’ knowledge regarding animal disposal following pentobarbital euthanasia. Further education on this topic may be beneficial, particularly for early- and midcareer veterinarians who euthanize non–food-producing species and for veterinarians who euthanize mixed species in urban and suburban communities.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association