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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Transfusion practices in dogs treated at Tufts University Foster Hospital for Small Animals were monitored for 1 year before and 2 years after receipt (by the School) of a Transfusion Medicine Academic Award, a 5-year National Institutes of Health curriculum and career development grant. The most important changes observed were increased use of packed rbc instead of fresh whole blood for initial treatment of anemia and hemorrhage attributable to coagulopathies and surgery. In addition, increased use of plasma was part of the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Change was not observed in the use of plasma for dogs with hypoalbuminemia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 21 cats with spinal lymphoma were reviewed. All cats were evaluated for neurologic deficits, although 85% of cats necropsied had multicentric disease. Eighty-one percent of cats had hind limb paresis. Results of FeLV tests were positive in 84.2% (16/19) of the cats, and 68.7% (11/16) of the cats had leukemic bone marrow. Spinal lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy in 13 cats, by examination of a biopsy specimen in 1 cat, and by examination of cells aspirated from an epidural lesion in 2 cats. In the remaining 5 cats, a presumptive diagnosis was made on the basis of neurologic examination findings, positive FeLV test results, and leukemic bone marrow.

Nine cats were treated with chemotherapy alone. The complete remission rate was 50% in 6 cats given cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. The median duration of complete remission was 14 weeks. Complete remissions were not observed in 3 cats given only corticosteroids. A single cat treated by laminectomy and postoperative chemotherapy had a prolonged remission (62 weeks).

At necropsy, lymphoma of the cns was limited to the vertebral canal in 10 of 13 cats; 2 cats had malignant tissue in the brain and vertebral canal, and in the remaining cat, the tumor extended into the brachial plexus. Most tumors extended over multiple vertebral bodies, and 4 cats had more than 1 level of spinal cord involvement. The lymphoma was high-grade lymphoblastic or immunoblastic type in all cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate response to chemotherapy in cats with alimentary lymphoma and to determine factors associated with survival time.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

28 cats with alimentary lymphoma that underwent chemotherapy.

Results

In all cats, the diagnosis had been established by means of cytologic or histologic examination of ultrasound-guided aspirates and biopsy specimens (18 cats), histologic examination of surgically obtained biopsy specimens (7 cats), or examination of specimens obtained endoscopically (3 cats). Clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhea. Twenty-seven cats were treated with vincristine sulfate, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone; 1 was treated with chlorambucil and prednisone. Survival time ranged from 2 to 2,120 days (median, 50 days). Nine cats achieved complete remission (remission time ranged from 30 to 1,700 days; median, 213 days), 2 achieved partial remission, and 17 failed to respond to chemotherapy. Sex, FeLV status, hematocrit, serum total protein concentration, site and extent of gastrointestinal involvement, and clinical stage were not found to be associated with survival time.

Clinical Implications

Cats with alimentary lymphoma are poorly responsive to treatment with vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone; however, a small subset of cats may have long survival times.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Idarubicin, a new synthetic anthracycline analogue, was administered orally to 34 cats with spontaneous tumors. The maximum tolerated dosage was determined to be 2 mg/cat/d given for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks. Anorexia and leukopenia were found to be dose limiting in cats receiving the drug at a higher dosage. The most common toxicoses seen at the maximum tolerated dosage were leukopenia, anorexia, and vomiting; however, development of toxicoses was not found to be associated with sex, FeLV test result, tumor type, dosage, age, or weight.

Idarubicin (2 mg/cat/d for 3 days, q 3 wks) was used to treat 18 cats with lymphoma in which complete remission had been achieved by administration of other chemotherapeutic agents. Median remission duration for these cats was comparable to that reported for cats treated with other protocols. We concluded that orally administered idarubicin would be useful in the treatment of cats with lymphoma.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate response rate and duration of malignant melanomas in dogs treated with carboplatin.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—27 client-owned dogs with spontaneously occurring measurable malignant melanomas.

Procedure—Records of dogs with melanomas treated with carboplatin from October 1989 to June 2000 were reviewed. Carboplatin was administered IV at doses of 300 or 350 mg/m2 of body surface area. Response to treatment and evidence of drug toxicity were determined.

Result—Response to treatment could be evaluated in 25 dogs. Of those, overall response rate was 28%. One dog had a complete response, 6 (24%) dogs had a partial response (> 50% reduction in tumor burden). Median duration of partial response was 165 days. Eighteen dogs had stable disease (n = 9; 36%) or progressive disease (9; 36%). Response to treatment was significantly associated with carboplatin dose on a milligram per kilogram basis (15.1 mg/kg [6.9 mg/lb] of body weight vs 12.6 mg/kg [5.7 mg/lb]). Evidence of gastrointestinal toxicosis could be assessed in 27 dogs. Mean body weight of 5 dogs that developed gastrointestinal toxicosis was significantly less than that of 22 dogs without gastrointestinal toxicosis (9.9 kg [21.8 lb] vs 19.3 kg [42.5 lb]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carboplatin had activity against macroscopic spontaneously occurring malignant melanomas in dogs and should be considered as an adjunctive treatment for microscopic local or metastatic tumors. Gastrointestinal toxicosis was associated with body weight. Because small dogs are more likely to have adverse gastrointestinal effects, gastrointestinal protectants should be considered for these patients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1444–1448)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Mitoxantrone was administered to 74 dogs with lymphoma at a dosage of 5.0 mg/m2 of body surface, IV, every 3 weeks. Thirty-four dogs had failed to respond to prior treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, which included doxorubicin (33 dogs). The remaining 40 dogs had not received prior treatment.

Complete remission was determined in 19 of 74 dogs (26%), 10 of which had not received prior treatment. The median duration of remission for these 10 dogs was 94 days (range, 49 to 440 days, with 2 dogs still alive at 370 and 440 days, respectively). Nine dogs that had received prior treatment had complete remission that lasted for a median of 126 days (range, 42 to 792 days, with 1 dog still alive at 792 days). The combined remission rate (complete remission plus partial remission) was 41%. Toxicosis was minimal, developing in only 9 dogs and requiring hospitalization of 2 dogs.

We concluded that the complete remission rate ascertained when mitoxantrone was the only treatment administered was low, compared with treatments that involved other chemotherapeutic agents; however, the combined remission rate of 41% indicated that mitoxantrone may be beneficial in the treatment of lymphoma in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prognostic factors for survival and tumor recurrence in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in the perineal and inguinal regions treated surgically with or without adjunctive radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—68 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with histologically confirmed MCTs in the perineal region, inguinal region, or both treated surgically with or without adjunctive radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both were reviewed.

Results—Mean tumor-free interval was 1,635 days (median not reached), and 1- and 2-year tumor-free rates were 79% and 71%, respectively. Median survival time was 1,111 days (mean, 1,223 days), and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 79% and 61%, respectively. Factors that negatively influenced survival time were age at diagnosis, tumor recurrence, and treatment with lomustine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs with MCTs in the inguinal and perineal regions, if appropriately treated, may have survival times and tumor-free intervals similar to dogs with MCTs in other locations. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:401–408)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association