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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors associated with development of catheter-associated jugular thrombophlebitis in hospitalized horses.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—50 horses with thrombophlebitis and 100 control horses.

Procedure—Medical records from 1993 through 1998 were searched for horses with thrombophlebitis. Horses that were hospitalized for at least 5 days, had an IV catheter placed in a jugular vein (other than for solely anesthetic purposes), and had no evidence of thrombophlebitis during admission or hospitalization were chosen as controls. Signalment, history, clinicopathologic findings, primary illness, and treatment were obtained from the medical records. Data were analyzed by use of logistic regression to perform univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results—For a horse with endotoxemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 18 times those for a similar horse without endotoxemia. For a horse with salmonellosis, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 68 times those for a similar horse without salmonellosis. For a horse with hypoproteinemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were almost 5 times those for a similar horse without hypoproteinemia. For a horse in the medicine section, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 16 times those for a similar horse in the surgery section. For a horse with large intestinal disease, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 4 times those for a similar horse without large intestinal disease. For a horse receiving antidiarrheal or antiulcerative medications, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 31 times those for a similar horse not receiving these medications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that patient factors, including large intestinal disease, hypoproteinemia, salmonellosis, and endotoxemia, were associated with development of catheter-associated thrombophlebitis in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1134–1141)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine sensitivity of equine skeletal muscle to tetrodotoxin and compare that with sensitivity of murine and human skeletal muscles.

Sample Population—Semimembranosus, vastus lateralis, triceps brachii, and masseter muscle specimens from 22 euthanatized horses, vastus lateralis muscle biopsy specimens from 25 clinically normal humans, and diaphragmatic muscle specimens from 6 mice.

Procedure—Electrically elicited twitch responses were measured in muscle specimens incubated in medium alone and with tetrodotoxin (100 nM, 400 nM, 1.6 µM for equine specimens and 100 nM, 200 nM, 400 nM, 800 nM, 1.6 µM for murine and human specimens). Percentages of tetrodotoxin-sensitive and -resistant sodium channels were determined and compared among muscles and species.

Results—2 sodium channels with different sensitivities to tetrodotoxin were identified in equine muscle. One was blocked with 100 nM tetrodotoxin and the other was unaffected by tetrodotoxin at concentrations up to 1.6 µM. The only difference detected among the 4 equine muscles was that masseter muscle specimens had a higher percentage of tetrodotoxin- sensitive channels than triceps brachii muscle specimens. Tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels constituted 31 to 66% of the equine muscle twitch response, which was greater than that determined for normal human and murine muscle (< 5%).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Equine skeletal muscle contains a high percentage of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels. The 4 equine muscles evaluated were more similar to each other than to murine and human muscles. Shifts in expression of sodium channel subtypes may play a role in the manifestation of certain myopathies. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:133–138)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) was performed on 16 horses to determine whether it caused local or diffuse inflammation in the lungs. In 7 horses, bal was performed in both lungs twice, 48 hours apart. Although total cell counts of the bal samples did not change significantly, there were increased numbers and percentage of neutrophils in the second lavage fluid samples. In 5 horses, bal was performed in 1 lung and repeated 48 hours later in the same lung and in the corresponding airway in the contralateral lung. The absolute cell count and percentage of neutrophils were significantly (P = < 0.05) increased in the second sample from the lung that was lavaged twice. In 4 horses, bal was performed in 1 lung and 48 hours later, repeated in an adjacent airway to the first bal site, and in the corresponding airway in the contralateral lung. Significant differences were not detected the total or differential cell counts of the bal fluid recovered at any time, except for an increase in neutrophil percentage in the second sample in the contralateral lung. The increased neutrophil percentage values were within the range of normal for healthy horses.

Results of the study suggested that, in horses, bal induces a localized pulmonary neutrophil influx that persists at least 48 hours and is characterized by a relative and absolute increase in the number of neutrophils in the lavage fluids.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The endobronchial anatomy of 12 lung specimens from horses and 12 healthy, standing, sedated horses was evaluated, using a 200-cm-long, 9.5-mm-diameter videoendoscope. On the basis of these findings, the nomenclature system of Amis and McKiernan was modified for identification of airways of horses during bronchoscopy. Lobar bronchi are identified on the basis of the side of the bronchial tree on which they were found and the order in which they originated from the primary bronchus. Thus, RB1, RB2, and RB3 referred to right cranial lobar bronchus, respectively. On the left side, the designation of LB1 and LB2 refer to the left cranial lobar bronchus and the left caudal lobar bronchus, respectively. Segmental bronchi are identified by consecutive numbers in the order of origination from the lobar bronchus. The direction of the segmental bronchus was denoted by the capital letter D (dorsal), V (ventral), L (lateral), M (medial), R (rostral), and C (caudal). Subsegmental bronchi were identified in the order of origination from the segmental bronchi, using lower case letters (eg, RB2, 1V, a or RB2, 1V, aV). For subsequent branching of the subsegmental bronchi, the branches were numbered consecutively by their order of origination (eg, RB2, 1V, aV, 1D).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) fluid was analyzed in healthy horses, using different lavage fluid volumes and lung sites. The only significant difference in the cellular composition of bal fluid between the right and left lungs was the mast cell numbers, which were significantly higher in the left lung. Total cell count ranged from 34 to 330 cells/μl for the right lung and 43 to 330 cells/μl for the left lung. Percentage of neutrophils ranged from 1 to 7% in the right lung and 1 to 5% in the left lung. The small-volume (50 ml) lavage had a greater percentage of neutrophils and a lesser percentage of mast cells in the large-volume (350 ml) lavage. Statistical difference in the composition of bal fluid recovered was not detected between the 3 sequential 100-ml lavages and a single 300-ml lavage, except that macrophages were significantly higher in the 3 sequential 100-ml lavages. Values for bal fluid analysis in healthy horses have varied considerably and this variation is from a failure to adhere to any standard technique for volume of fluid infused.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research