Objective—To examine effects of co-infection with
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
(PRRSV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in pigs.
Animals—Forty 3-week-old pigs.
Procedure—30 pigs (10 pigs/group) were inoculated
with PRRSV, B bronchiseptica, or both. Ten noninoculated
pigs were control animals.
Results—Clinical signs, febrile response, and
decreased weight gain were most severe in the group
inoculated with both organisms. The PRRSV was isolated
from all pigs in both groups inoculated with
virus. All pigs in both groups that received PRRSV had
gross and microscopic lesions consistent with interstitial
pneumonia. Bordetella bronchiseptica was cultured
from all pigs in both groups inoculated with that
bacterium. Colonization of anatomic sites by B bronchiseptica
was comparable between both groups.
Pigs in the group that received only B bronchiseptica
lacked gross or microscopic lung lesions, and B bronchiseptica
was not isolated from lung tissue. In the
group inoculated with B bronchiseptica and PRRSV, 3
of 5 pigs 10 days after inoculation and 5 of 5 pigs 21
days after inoculation had gross and microscopic
lesions consistent with bacterial bronchopneumonia,
and B bronchiseptica was isolated from the lungs of 7
of those 10 pigs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinical disease
was exacerbated in co-infected pigs, including
an increased febrile response, decreased weight gain,
and B bronchiseptica-induced pneumonia. Bordetella
bronchiseptica and PRRSV may circulate in a herd and
cause subclinical infections. Therefore, co-infection
with these organisms may cause clinical respiratory
tract disease and leave pigs more susceptible to subsequent
infection with opportunistic bacteria. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:892–899)
Objective—To determine effects of intranasal inoculation
with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
virus (PRRSV) or Bordetella bronchiseptica on
challenge with nontoxigenic Pasteurella multocida in
Animals—Seventy 3-week-old pigs.
Procedure—In experiment 1, pigs were not inoculated
(n= 10) or were inoculated with PRRSV (10), P multocida
(10), or PRRSV followed by challenge with P
multocida (10). In experiment 2, pigs were not inoculated
(n = 10) or were inoculated with B bronchiseptica
(10) or PRRSV and B bronchiseptica (10); all pigs
were challenged with P multocida. Five pigs from
each group were necropsied 14 and 21 days after initial
Results—Pasteurella multocida was not isolated
from tissue specimens of pigs challenged with P multocida
alone or after inoculation with PRRSV.
However, in pigs challenged after inoculation with B
bronchiseptica, P multocida was isolated from specimens
of the nasal cavity and tonsil of the soft palate.
Number of bacteria isolated increased in pigs challenged
after coinoculation with PRRSV and B bronchiseptica,
and all 3 agents were isolated from pneumonic
lesions in these pigs.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Infection of
pigs with B bronchiseptica but not PRRSV prior to
challenge with P multocida resulted in colonization of
the upper respiratory tract and tonsil of the soft palate
with P multocida. Coinfection with PRRSV and B
bronchiseptica predisposed pigs to infection of the
upper respiratory tract and lung with P multocida.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
and B bronchiseptica may interact to adversely affect
respiratory tract defense mechanisms, leaving pigs
especially vulnerable to infection with secondary
agents such as P multocida. (Am J Vet Res 2001;
Objective—To determine outcome in dogs and cats that underwent extensive (ie, > 50%) resection of the small intestine and identify factors associated with outcome.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—13 dogs and 7 cats.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and follow-up information was obtained.
Results—In all 7 cats and in 8 of the 13 dogs, extensive intestinal resection was performed because of a foreign body. Mean ± SD estimated percentage of intestine that was removed was 68 ± 14% (range, 50% to 90%). Two dogs were euthanized 3 days after surgery because of dehiscence of the surgical site and development of septic peritonitis; 1 dog died of acute respiratory distress syndrome 5 days after surgery. The remaining 10 dogs and 7 cats were discharged from the hospital, and follow-up information was available for 15 of the 17. Median survival time was 828 days, and 12 of the 15 animals for which long-term follow-up information was available had good outcomes. However, none of the factors examined, including percentage of intestine resected, were significantly associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs and cats that underwent extensive resection of the small intestine had a good outcome. The amount of intestine resected was not associated with outcome. These data may be useful in providing prognostic information in cases of extensive small intestinal resection.
Objective—To characterize clinical features of tracheal
rupture associated with endotracheal intubation
in cats and to evaluate the most appropriate treatment
for this condition.
Animals—20 cats with a history of endotracheal intubation
that subsequently developed dyspnea or subcutaneous
Procedure—Medical records of cats with a presumptive
diagnosis of tracheal rupture associated with intubation
were reviewed. Clinical and clinicopathologic
data were retrieved.
Results—Cats were evaluated 5 hours to 12 days after
a surgical or medical procedure requiring general anesthesia
with intubation had been performed. Fourteen
(70%) cats were evaluated after dental prophylaxis. All
cats radiographed had pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous
emphysema. Eighteen of 19 cats were initially
treated medically. Duration of medical treatment
for cats that did not have surgery ranged from 12 to 72
hours. Cats that had surgery received medical treatment
3 to 24 hours prior to the surgical procedure.
Medical treatment alone was administered to 15 cats
that had moderate dyspnea, whereas surgical treatment
was chosen for 4 cats that had severe dyspnea
(open-mouth breathing despite treatment with oxygen)
or worsening subcutaneous emphysema.
Eighteen cats had improvement of clinical signs, 1 cat
died after surgery, and 1 cat died before medical or
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Most cats
with tracheal rupture associated with intubation can
be treated medically. Cats with worsening clinical
signs (severe dyspnea, suspected pneumothorax, or
worsening subcutaneous emphysema) should have
surgery performed immediately to correct the defect.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1592–1595)
Objective—To determine history, results of diagnostic testing, surgical findings, complications, and outcome for dogs with liver lobe torsion (LLT).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—12 dogs (1 with 2 episodes).
Procedure—Signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, surgical and histologic findings, complications, and hospitalization time were evaluated.
Results—The most common clinical signs were nonspecific abnormalities (eg, vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia) of acute or chronic duration. All dogs were large-breed dogs (median body weight, 37.2 kg [82 lb]). Biochemical abnormalities included high alanine amino-transferase (n = 12) and aspartate aminotransferase (11) activities. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were supportive of the diagnosis in 5 of 8 cases. Affected lobes included the left medial lobe (n = 4), left lateral lobe (3), papillary process of the caudate lobe (2), caudate lobe (1), and right lateral lobe (1). Exploratory celiotomy and liver lobectomy were performed in 12 of 13 cases, and in 11 of those 12 cases, the dog survived.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that development of nonspecific clinical signs of vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia in conjunction with high serum hepatic enzyme activities and mature neutrophilia in a medium-sized or large-breed dog should increase the index of suspicion for LLT. Abdominal ultrasonography with Doppler assessment may be useful in establishing the diagnosis. The long-term outcome for dogs that survive the hospitalization period is excellent.
Objective—To identify factors associated with outcome in cats with extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (EHBTO) that undergo biliary diversion surgery.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of cats with surgically confirmed EHBTO that underwent cholecystoenterostomy were reviewed.
Results—Clinical signs and physical examination findings included vomiting, anorexia, icterus, lethargy, weakness, and weight loss. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities included high serum hepatic enzyme activities and serum bilirubin concentration. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in 21 cats, and all 21 had findings consistent with EHBTO. Eleven of 15 cats in which blood pressure was monitored had intraoperative hypotension. Eighteen cats had anemia following surgery, and 14 cats had persistent hypotension. Extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction was a result of neoplasia in 9 cats and chronic inflammatory disease in 13. Fourteen cats survived long enough to be discharged from the hospital, but only 6 survived > 6 months after surgery, all of which had chronic inflammatory disease. Median survival time for cats with neoplasia (14 days) was significantly shorter than that for cats with inflammatory disease (255 days). No other variable was associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cats with EHBTO secondary to neoplasia have a poorer prognosis than cats with EHBTO secondary to chronic inflammatory disease. However, the overall prognosis for cats with EHBTO undergoing cholecystoenterostomy must be considered guarded to poor, and the incidence of perioperative complications is high.