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To determine whether microcytosis is a typical finding in Shibas.


Prospective study.


18 Shibas.


Blood and serum samples were obtained for automated hematologic analyses (18 dogs) and for determination of ferritin concentration, using ELISA (14 dogs). Blood samples from 30 clinically normal dogs of various other breeds was analyzed to establish a reference range for ferritin concentration.


Erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume in Shibas ranged from 55.6 to 69.1 fl (mean ± SD, 61.2 ± 4.3 fl; median, 60.6 fl; reference range, 63 to 73 fl). Microcytosis was identified in 12 of 18 dogs. Males and females were affected equally. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was slightly low (range, 32.0 to 33.9%; reference range, 34 to 38%) in 6 dogs, 4 of which had microcytic RBC. Serum ferritin concentrations ranged from 61.2 to 277.0 ng/ml (mean ± SD, 110.6 ± 51.4 ng/ml; median, 106 ng/ml). Reference range for serum ferritin concentration was 50.7 to 440.0 ng/ml (mean ± SD, 121.2 ± 67.1 ng/ml; median, 111.5 ng/ml). Thrombocytopenia (range, 110,000 to 196,000 platelets; reference range, 200,000 to 450,000 platelets) was found in 7 dogs, 6 of which also had microcytic RBC.

Clinical Implications

Microcytosis can be a typical finding in Shibas. Common origin of Shibas and Akitas, a breed predisposed to microcytosis, suggests a hereditary basis for this finding. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1258–1259)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, and hepatic histopathologic features and outcome for dogs with probable ketoconazole-induced liver injury.


15 dogs with suspected ketoconazole-induced liver injury that underwent liver biopsy.


Medical record data were summarized regarding signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic and hepatic histopathologic findings, concurrent medications, ketoconazole dose, treatment duration, and outcome.


Median age and body weight were 8.2 years (range, 5 to 15 years) and 13.0 kg (28.6 lb; range, 8.2 to 38.0 kg [18.0 to 83.6 lb]), respectively. The most common breed was Cocker Spaniel (n = 5). All dogs received ketoconazole to treat cutaneous Malassezia infections. Median daily ketoconazole dose was 7.8 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb; range, 4.4 to 26.0 mg/kg [2.0 to 11.8 mg/lb]), PO. Treatment duration ranged from 0.3 to 100 cumulative weeks (intermittent cyclic administration in some dogs); 6 dogs were treated for ≤ 10 days. Common clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. All dogs developed high serum liver enzyme activities. Hepatic histopathologic findings included variable lobular injury, mixed inflammatory infiltrates, and conspicuous aggregates of ceroid-lipofuscin–engorged macrophages that marked regions of parenchymal damage. Five dogs developed chronic hepatitis, including 3 with pyogranulomatous inflammation. Of the 10 dogs reported to have died at last follow-up, survival time after illness onset ranged from 0.5 to 165 weeks, with 7 dogs dying of liver-related causes.


Findings for dogs with hepatotoxicosis circumstantially associated with ketoconazole treatment suggested proactive monitoring of serum liver enzyme activities is advisable before and sequentially after initiation of such treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association