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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Ultrasonic pachymetry was used to measure central superior peripheral, and temporal peripheral corneal thickness of 35 cats (70 eyes) with normal corneas, anterior chambers, and intraocular pressures. Mean central corneal thickness for both eyes in 3 locations for 35 cats was 578 ± 64 µm. Significant differences did not exist between central and peripheral corneal thickness. Corneal thickness increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age up to 100 months. There was no significant difference in corneal thickness with regard to sex of the cats when adjusted for age.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common neoplasm found in a review of case records of 21 cats with histopathologically confirmed orbital neoplasms. Other neoplasms found were lymphosarcoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, adenocarcinoma, fibrosarcoma, chondroma, and hemangiosarcoma. Three (14%) neoplasms were primary, 15 (71%) were secondary, invading the orbit from adjacent tissues, and 3 (14%) were a manifestation of multicentric disease. The most common clinical sign was exophthalmia, followed by chronic epiphora, enophthalmia, and strabismus. Mean survival time after diagnosis was 1.9 months. Ten cats were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis because of extensive disease. Mean survival time of the other 11 cats was 4.3 months. Skull radiography was helpful in diagnosing orbital neoplasms in 8 of 11 cats that had invasion of the orbit by adjacent neoplasms.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

An experimental model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (kcs) was produced by removing the lacrimal gland and the gland of the third eyelid from the left eye of 6 cats. The right eye of each cat was left intact and used as a control. After 2 weeks, cats were euthanatized and the central portion of the upper eyelid from both eyes of each cat was excised. Histologic sections were stained with either hematoxylin and eosin or with a battery of biotinylated lectins including concanavalin A (cona), soybean agglutinin (sba), wheat germ agglutinin (wga), succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-wga), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (uea), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (dba), Ricinus communis agglutinin (rca), peanut agglutinin (pna), and pna pretreated with neuraminidase.

Consistent differences in histologic features were not observed between conjunctivas with kcs and control conjunctivas. A variable degree of mononuclear cell infiltration of the substantia propria was observed in control conjunctivas and those with kcs. In both groups, conjunctival goblet cell density decreased and epithelial stratification increased as the degree of submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration increased.

Lectin binding sites for dba, wga, s-wga, uea, pna, and pna pretreated with neuraminidase were detected on conjunctival goblet cells of conjunctivas with kcs and control conjunctivas. The mucus/glycocalyx layer of conjunctival epithelial cells in both groups of conjunctivas bound lectins rca, wga, uea, and cona, but inconsistently bound s-wga. In both groups, dba principally bound to the mucus layer overlying normal epithelium, whereas pna pretreated with neuraminidase consistently bound to the mucus layer of stratified epithelial surfaces free of goblet cells. Binding of sba to goblet cells and the mucus/glycocalyx layer was variable.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Contact in vivo wide-field specular microscopy was performed on right eyes of 20 healthy dogs after sodium hyaluronate (1%, n = 5), sodium chondroitin sulfate (4%) and sodium hyaluronate (3%, n = 5), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (2%, n = 5), or balanced salt solution (control, n = 5) was injected into the anterior chamber. Using computerized morphometric analysis and pachymetry, changes in endothelial cell density, cell morphologic features, and corneal thickness from baseline values were evaluated at postinjection hour (pih) 72 and pih 168. Changes were not seen in endothelial cell density or cell morphologic features in any treated eye. The mean corneal thickness of all treated eyes at pih 72 increased 6%, significantly greater than that of the nontreated eyes (P = 0.03). Mean corneal thickness of treated and nontreated eyes was similar at baseline and pih 168 in all treatment groups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine the outcome of implantation of an intraocular silicone prosthesis ( isp) in the eyes of dogs and cats with intraocular neoplasia.

Design—

Retrospective case series.

Animals—

Eight dogs and 1 cat with histologically confirmed intraocular neoplasia.

Procedure—

Signalment, clinical signs before and after surgery, results of microscopic examination of eviscerated intraocular tissues, follow-up information, and necropsy findings, if available, were recorded for each animal.

Results—

Five dogs and 1 cat had primary intraocular neoplasms. Two of the dogs developed regrowth of the neoplasm around the isp 6 to 24 months after implantation, and the eyes were enucleated. The cat developed signs compatible with systemic metastasis 4 years after surgery and was euthanatized. Three dogs had multicentric or metastatic neoplasia involving the eye. Two of these dogs were euthanatized because of their systemic disease 1.5 to 7 months after isp implantation. The third dog is alive without evidence of regrowth 3 years after surgery.

Clinical Implications—

Intraocular neoplasia is not an absolute contraindication to isp implantation

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eighteen eyes of 66 dogs were visual on reevaluation of traumatic proptosis. Twenty-one eyes were enucleated, and 4 dogs were euthanatized. In 18 cats, no eyes regained vision after traumatic proptosis: 12 cats had the affected eye enucleated, 2 had an eye that was considered blind, and 4 cats were euthanatized. Affected eyes of 45 dogs and 2 cats underwent surgical replacement and temporary tarsorrhaphy. Favorable prognostic indicators for eyes undergoing surgical replacement included proptosis in a brachycephalic dog, positive direct or consensual pupillary light response, normal findings on posterior segment examination, and a proptosed eye that had vision on initial examination. Unfavorable prognostic indicators included proptosis in a nonbrachycephalic dog, proptosis in cats, hyphema, no visible pupil, facial fractures, optic nerve damage, and avulsion of 3 or more extraocular muscles.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate changes on the surfaces of polymethylmethacrylate (pmma), silicone, and polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate (hema) intraocular lenses (iol) that had been implanted in the anterior chambers of the right eyes of 15 dogs. Five dogs received pmma iol; 5 dogs received silicone iol; and 5 dogs received hema iol. Twenty-eight days after surgery, the iol were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Nonimplanted iol of each type were processed identically for comparison. Implanted pmma iol had significantly more debris and macrophages on their surfaces than did silicone iol or hema iol. Silicone iol had significantly less fibrin deposition than did pmma or hema iol. Silicone iol had surface defects attributable to handling by surgical instruments. Implanted hema iol had multiple pits that appeared to be caused by biodegradation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Clinical findings indicate that canine eyes tolerate implantation of polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) intraocular lenses (iol) well, although inflammation and ocular damage attributable to the implants is not known. The use of silicone or polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate (hema) iol has not been reported in dogs. In this study, 15 conditioned, mixed-breed dogs were allotted to 3 groups: 5 received pmma iol; 5 received silicone iol; and 5 received hema iol. The iol optic was inserted into the anterior chamber of the right eye and anchored to the cornea. An identical surgical procedure was done on the left eye, except that no lens optic was inserted. Clinical examination and measurement of corneal thickness were done immediately prior to and after surgery. Aqueous humor samples were collected at the time of surgery and 28 days after surgery. Only mild and transient inflammation was observed in iol-implanted eyes. On several postoperative days, it was found that pmma iol induced significantly greater corneal thickness, aqueous flare, anterior uveal irritation, and corneal edema than did other iol. Significantly more anterior uveal irritation and increased aqueous humor protein concentration was observed with hema iol than with pmma or silicone iol. Silicone iol induced significantly less fibrin deposition than did pmma or hema iol.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Ultrasonic pachymetry was used to measure central, superior peripheral, and temporal peripheral corneal thicknesses of 75 dogs (150 eyes) with normal corneas, anterior chambers, and intraocular pressure. Mean corneal thickness averaged over the 2 eyes, 3 locations, and 75 dogs was 562 ± 6.2 μm. The peripheral cornea was thicker on average than the central cornea by 49.43 ± 8.45 μm and this difference increased with age at 6.97 ± 1.3 μm/month of age. Mean corneal thickness changed with age (14.23 ± 2.26 μm/month), and weight (1.83 ± 0.38 μm/kg). Females had significantly thinner corneas (22.43 ± 11.03 μm than males) after adjusting for age and weight.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research