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Objective—To describe the effects of increasing the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by approximately 20% on acid-base changes and electrolyte concentrations in anesthetized rats.

Animals—18 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Procedures—Rats were assigned to a control group (n = 6 rats) and a treatment group (12). All rats were anesthetized, and instrumentation and bilateral renal pedicle ligation were performed. The treatment group was infused IV with sterile water throughout a 30-minute period. Acid-base variables and concentrations of electrolytes, lactate, albumin, phosphorus, and hemoglobin were measured before (baseline) and 30 and 60 minutes after onset of infusion. Anion gap, strong ion difference, strong ion gap, and contributions of sodium, chloride, albumin, phosphorus, and lactate concentrations to base excess were calculated at each time point.

Results—Infusion of sterile water led to an increase in ECF volume of approximately 18%. This had no effect on acid-base balance, compared with that in control rats. Infusion of sterile water caused a significant decrease in sodium, chloride, ionized calcium, lactate, and albumin concentrations, compared with concentrations in the control group. Anion gap and calculated effects of sodium, chloride, albumin, and lactate concentrations on base excess at 60 minutes differed significantly between infused and control rats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infusion of sterile water did not cause clinically relevant dilutional acidosis. The acidotic impact of water administration was offset by generation of new bicarbonate via carbonic acid equilibration and intracellular buffering in combination with the alkalotic effects of decreases in albumin, phosphorus, and lactate concentrations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Cardiopulmonary effects of etomidate administration were studied in hypovolemic dogs. Baseline cardiopulmonary data were recorded from conscious dogs after instrumentation. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of blood from dogs until mean arterial pressure of 60 mm of Hg was achieved. Blood pressure was maintained at 60 mm of Hg for 1 hour, by further removal or replacement of blood. One milligram of etomidate/kg of body weight was then administered iv to 7 dogs, and the cardiopulmonary effects were measured 3, 15, 30, and 60 minutes later. After blood withdrawal and prior to etomidate administration, heart rate, arterial oxygen tension, and oxygen utilization ratio increased. Compared with baseline values, the following variables were decreased: mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary wedge pressure, cardiac index, oxygen delivery, mixed venous oxygen tension, mixed venous oxygen content, and arterial carbon dioxide tension. Three minutes after etomidate administration, central venous pressure, mixed venous and arterial carbon dioxide tension, and venous admixture increased, and heart rate, arterial and venous pH, and arterial oxygen tension decreased, compared with values measured immediately prior to etomidate administration. Fifteen minutes after etomidate injection, arterial pH and heart rate remained decreased. At 30 minutes, only heart rate was decreased, and at 60 minutes, mean arterial pressure was increased, compared with values measured before etomidate administration. Results of this study indicate that etomidate induces minimal changes in cardiopulmonary function when administered to hypovolemic dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research