Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Stephen P. Oliver x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether lactoferrin (LF) or milk influenced adherence of Streptococcus uberisto bovine mammary epithelial cells.

Sample Population—Three strains of S uberis from cows with mastitis, pooled milk samples from 3 clinically healthy Jersey cows early in the lactation period, and bovine mammary epithelial cells from a clonal cell line.

Procedures—Adherence of S uberis to bovine mammary epithelial cells in the presence of various concentrations of LF or milk and after pretreatment of bacteria with LF or milk was tested. Bacteria were cultured with mammary epithelial cell monolayers for 1 hour. The culture supernatant was removed, and the epithelial cells were lysed. Adherence index was calculated as number of colony-forming units (CFU) in the cell lysate divided by number of CFU in the supernatant times 10,000.

Results—All 3 strains of S uberis were found to bind to purified LF and LF in milk. Addition of LF to the culture medium enhanced adherence of all 3 strains to mammary epithelial cells, whereas addition of milk enhanced adherence of 2 strains and decreased adherence of the third. Pretreatment of bacteria with LF or milk increased adherence of 1 of the strains but decreased adherence of the other 2. Increased adherence was antagonized by rabbit antibovine LF antibody.

Conclusions—Results suggest that LF may function as a bridging molecule between S uberis and bovine mammary epithelial cells, facilitating adherence of the bacteria to the cells. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:275–279)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of within-household sharing of fecal Escherichia coli between dogs and their owners on the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), compare antimicrobial susceptibility between isolates from dogs and their owners, and evaluate epidemiologic features of cross-species sharing by use of a questionnaire.

Sample Population—61 healthy dog-owner pairs and 30 healthy control humans.

Procedures—3 fecal E coli colonies were isolated from each participant; PFGE profiles were used to establish relatedness among bacterial isolates. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials was determined via disk diffusion. A questionnaire was used to evaluate signalment, previous antimicrobial therapy, hygiene, and relationship with dog.

Results—A wide array of PFGE profiles was observed in E coli isolates from all participants. Within-household sharing occurred with 9.8% prevalence, and across-household sharing occurred with 0.3% prevalence. No behaviors were associated with increased clonal sharing between dog and owner. No differences were found in susceptibility results between dog-owner pairs. Control isolates were more likely than canine isolates to be resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Owners and control humans carried more multdrug-resistant E coli than did dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Within-household sharing of E coli was detected more commonly than across-household sharing, but both direct contact and environmental reservoirs may be routes of cross-species sharing of bacteria and genes for resistance. Cross-species bacterial sharing is a potential public health concern, and good hygiene is recommended.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of 4 urovirulence genes in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy dogs and their owners and to determine whether detection of E coli strains with these genes was associated with a history of urinary tract infection (UTI).

Sample Population—61 healthy dog-owner pairs and 30 healthy non–dog owners.

Procedures—A fecal specimen was obtained from each participant, and 3 colonies of E coli were isolated from each specimen. A multiplex PCR assay was used to detect 4 genes encoding virulence factors: cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf), hemolysin (hlyD), s-fimbrial and F1C fimbriae adhesin (sfa/foc), and pilus associated with pyelonephritis G allele III (papGIII). Human participants completed a questionnaire to provide general information and any history of UTI for themselves and, when applicable, their dog.

Results—26% (16/61) of dogs, 18% (11/61) of owners, and 20% (6/30) of non–dog owners had positive test results for ≥ 1 E coli virulence gene. One or more genes were identified in fecal E coli isolates of both dog and owner in 2% (1/61) of households. There was no difference in the detection of any virulence factor between dog-owner pairs. Female owner history of UTI was associated with detection of each virulence factor in E coli strains isolated from their dogs' feces.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs and humans harbored fecal E coli strains possessing the genes cnf, hlyD, sfa/foc, and papGIII that encode urovirulence factors. It was rare for both dog and owner to have fecal E coli strains with these virulence genes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research