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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gastroscopy and biopsy of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons (Columba livia).

ANIMALS 15 adult pigeons.

PROCEDURES Each pigeon was anesthetized, and the upper gastrointestinal tract (from the cervical portion of the esophagus to the ventriculus) was endoscopically evaluated by use of a rigid endoscope inserted orally. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was orally infused to achieve lumen dilation and visibility. Two mucosal biopsy specimens were collected from each of the proventriculus and ventriculus, histologically evaluated, and graded for crush artifacts and depth. Pigeons were monitored for adverse effects for 3 to 6 days after the procedure, after which they were euthanized for necropsy.

RESULTS Gastroscopy via the oral approach provided excellent visibility of the lumen and mucosal surfaces of the proventriculus and cranial portion of the ventriculus and was safe provided that appropriate precautions were taken. Two intraoperative deaths occurred at the beginning of the study; following procedure refinement, no additional deaths occurred. No major adverse effects of the procedure were detected in the remaining 13 pigeons during the postoperative monitoring period or at necropsy. Diagnostic quality of proventriculus specimens was adequate for 10 of 13 pigeons. Eight of 13 ventriculus specimens were of inadequate quality, and only 3 were of adequate quality.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gastroscopy was useful for evaluating the lumen and mucosal surface of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons, and biopsy of those organs was safely performed with the appropriate technique. Further evaluation of these techniques is needed in birds with clinical disease and birds of other species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor response in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to evaluate the use of blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry in this species.

Animals—15 healthy juvenile green iguanas.

Procedures—Baseline cardiopulmonary values were determined in 15 conscious iguanas breathing room air. Effects of 100% O2 inspiration were also measured (n = 6), and the baroreceptor reflex was characterized by exponential sigmoidal curve fitting analysis.

Results—Conscious iguanas had a mean ± SD resting heart rate of 52 ± 8 beats/min, respiratory rate of 28 ± 6 breaths/min, and systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures of 69 ± 10 mm Hg, 62 ± 12 mm Hg, and 56 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively. Mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.29 ± 0.11, Pao 2 was 81 ± 10 mm Hg, and Paco 2 was 42 ± 9 mm Hg; corrected for a body temperature of 30°C, mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.382 ±0.12, Pao 2 was 54 ± 15 mm Hg, and Paco 2 was 32 ± 7 mm Hg. Inspiration of 100% O2 did not change heart and respiratory rates but increased Pao 2 to 486 ± 105 mm Hg (corrected value, 437 ± 96 mm Hg). A baroreceptor reflex was evident, with mean heart rates ranging from 30 ± 3 beats/min to 63 ± 5 beats/min and mean arterial blood pressures ranging from 42 ± 3 mm Hg to 58 ± 3 mm Hg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided needed information on cardiopulmonary values in healthy green iguanas, the application and limitation of arterial and venous blood gas analysis, and the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate isoeugenol as an anesthetic agent in koi carp.

Animals—216 juvenile koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Procedures—Fish were randomly allocated to 9 groups of 24, and each group was randomly exposed to isoeugenol concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L. General activity, excitement, fin and gill color changes, opercular movement rate, loss of equilibrium, muscle tone, jaw tone, and handleability were assessed. Five fish from the control (0 mg/L), 200 mg/L, and 500 mg/L groups were randomly selected prior to anesthetic recovery and again 24 hours after recovery for euthanasia, gross necropsy, and histologic assessment of gills, internal viscera, and skeletal muscles.

Results—Mean ± SD interval to achieve stage 2 anesthesia with isoeugenol ranged from 22.4 ± 6.2 minutes at 20 mg/L to 0.25 ± 0.4 minutes at 500 mg/L, whereas the mean interval to stage 3 anesthesia ranged from 28.1 ± 3.9 minutes at 20 mg/L to 0.33 ± 0.48 minutes at 500 mg/L. With the exception of the 500 mg/L group, opercular movements were maintained throughout. Death was observed only in the 500 mg/L group, in which 50% of the fish either failed to recover or died within 24 hours after anesthetic exposure. There were no pathological differences between fish exposed to isoeugenol at 0 or 500 mg/L.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isoeugenol appeared to have a wide margin of safety with predictable dose-related effects. Concentrations of 40 to 80 mg/L induced anesthesia within 4 to 11 minutes and were considerably less than the concentration associated with fish death.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess effects of photobiomodulation, silver sulfadiazine, and a topical antimicrobial product for the treatment of experimentally induced full-thickness skin wounds in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

ANIMALS 16 healthy subadult green iguanas.

PROCEDURES Iguanas were anesthetized, and three 5-mm cutaneous biopsy specimens were obtained from each iguana (day 0). Iguanas were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups, each of which had a control treatment. Wounds in the topical treatment group received silver sulfadiazine, a topical antimicrobial product, or no treatment. Wounds in the laser treatment group received treatment with a class 4 laser at 5 or 10 J/cm2 or no treatment. Wound measurements were obtained daily for 14 days. Iguanas were euthanized, and treatment sites were evaluated microscopically to detect ulceration, bacterial contamination, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity.

RESULTS On day 14, wounds treated with a laser at 10 J/cm2 were significantly smaller than those treated with silver sulfadiazine, but there were no other significant differences among treatments. Histologically, there were no significant differences in ulceration, bacterial infection, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity among treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Photobiomodulation at 10 J/cm2 appeared to be a safe treatment that was tolerated well by green iguanas, but it did not result in substantial improvement in histologic evidence of wound healing, compared with results for other treatments or no treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in healthy green iguanas following PO and IV administration and assess potential toxicity.

Animals—21 healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

Procedures—To assess pharmacokinetics, 13 iguanas were administered a single dose (0.2 mg/kg) of meloxicam PO and, 14 days later, the same dose IV. To assess potential toxicity, 4 iguanas were given meloxicam at a dosage of 1 or 5 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 12 days, and results of histologic examination were compared with results for another 4 iguanas given a single dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg).

Results—There were no significant differences between PO and IV administration with regard to terminal half-life (mean ± SD, 12.96 ± 8.05 hours and 9.93 ± 4.92 hours, respectively), mean area under the curve to the last measured concentration (5.08 ± 1.62 μg•h/mL and 5.83 ± 2.49 μg•h/mL), volume of distribution (745 ± 475 mL/kg and 487 ± 266 mL/kg), or clearance (40.17 ± 10.35 mL/kg/h and 37.17 ± 16.08 mL/kg/h). Maximum plasma concentration was significantly greater following IV (0.63 ± 0.17 μg/mL) versus PO (0.19 ± 0.07 μg/mL) administration. Time from administration to maximum plasma concentration and mean residence time were significantly longer following PO versus IV administration. Daily administration of high doses (1 or 5 mg/kg) for 12 days did not induce any histologic changes in gastric, hepatic, or renal tissues.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that administration of meloxicam at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg IV or PO in green iguanas would result in plasma concentrations > 0.1 μg/mL for approximately 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1277–1283)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare analgesic and gastrointestinal effects of lidocaine and buprenorphine administered to rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS Fourteen 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES Rabbits were assigned to 2 treatment groups (7 rabbits/group). One group received buprenorphine (0.06 mg/kg, IV, q 8 h for 2 days), and the other received lidocaine (continuous rate infusion [CRI] at 100 μg/kg/min for 2 days). Variables, including food and water consumption, fecal output, glucose and cortisol concentrations, and behaviors while in exercise pens, were recorded.

RESULTS Rabbits receiving a lidocaine CRI had significantly higher gastrointestinal motility, food intake, and fecal output and significantly lower glucose concentrations, compared with results for rabbits receiving buprenorphine. Rabbits receiving lidocaine also had a higher number of normal behaviors (eg, sprawling, traveling, and frolicking) after surgery, compared with behaviors such as crouching and sitting that were seen more commonly in rabbits receiving buprenorphine. Both groups had significant weight loss after surgery. Pain scores did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Significant decreases in heart rate and respiratory rate were observed on the day of surgery, compared with values before and after surgery. Rabbits in the lidocaine group had significantly overall lower heart rates than did rabbits in the buprenorphine group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A CRI of lidocaine to rabbits provided better postoperative outcomes with respect to fecal output, food intake, and glucose concentrations. Thus, lidocaine appeared to be a suitable alternative to buprenorphine for alleviating postoperative pain with minimal risk of anorexia and gastrointestinal ileus.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research