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SUMMARY

Canine gastric dilatation-volvulus (gdv) is a naturally acquired condition of large-breed dogs primarily and is associated with high mortality. The clinical course suggests that reperfusion injury may be important in the pathogenesis of gdv. To evaluate the role of xanthine oxidase and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation (which are purported mechanisms of reperfusion injury) in the pathogenesis of gdv-related mortality, we created experimental gdv in 21 dogs. These dogs were then treated with either allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor), U74006F (an experimental lipid peroxidation inhibitor), or saline solution (NaCl, 0.85%). Three of 8 dogs died in the allopurinol-treated group, none of 5 died in the U74006F-treated group, and 4 of 8 died in the saline solution-treated group. Tissue malondialdehyde concentration, a nonspecific indicator of lipid peroxidation, was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the duodenum, jejunum, colon, liver, and pancreas of the saline-solution treated and allopurinol-treated dogs than in the same tissues of the U74006F-treated dogs after surgical correction of the gdv (ie, during reperfusion), compared with malondialdehyde concentrations determined before inducing gdv. The results of this study support the concept that lipid peroxidation associated with reperfusion injury is important in the pathogenesis and high mortality of canine gdv. Furthermore, this lipid peroxidation and mortality may be preventable by appropriate and timely treatment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate use of a particulate bioscaffold consisting of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the urinary bladder from pigs for treatment of acquired urinary incontinence in dogs resistant to medical treatment.

Design—Case series.

Animals—9 female dogs with acquired urinary incontinence.

Procedure—In 6 dogs, 30 mg of particulate ECM in 1.0 mL of a carrier consisting of glycerin and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was injected into each of 3 equally spaced sites around the circumference of the internal urethral sphincter via an endoscopic technique. In the remaining 3 dogs (control dogs), 1.0 mL of the carrier alone was injected in 3 equally spaced sites around the circumference of the internal urethral sphincter in a similar manner.

Results—For dogs treated with the ECM, median duration of urinary continence following treatment was 168 days (range, 84 to 616 days), whereas for the control dogs, median duration of urinary continence following the procedure was 14 days (range, 7 to 31 days). Two of the 3 control dogs were treated with the ECM at the end of the study and were continent for 119 and 252 days. No adverse effects were observed in any dog.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that endoscopically guided injection of particulate ECM into the internal urethral sphincter may be useful for the treatment of acquired urinary incontinence in female dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1095–1097)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

In dogs, gastric dilatation-volvulus (gdv) is characterized by cardiogenic shock, with resulting hypoperfusion. Treatment goals include reperfusion of transiently ischemic tissues, which indicates that reperfusion injury may be a factor in the physiopathogenesis of gdv. Recently, we obtained data that indicate that reperfusion injury may be involved in experimentally induced gdv. Using this gdv model, we evaluated mortality in 24 dogs of 4 equal groups, treated with deferoxamine (an iron chelator), dimethylsulfoxide (a free radical scavenger), a combination of the 2 drugs, or isotonic saline solution. All 6 dogs that were given deferoxamine survived; however, 3 dogs of the dimethylsulfoxide-treated group, 2 dogs of the combination-treated group, and 4 dogs of the saline-treated group died. Results of the study indicate that mortality associated with experimentally induced gdv is reduced by appropriate and timely pharmacologic intervention to prevent or attenuate reperfusion injury, and that deferoxamine may be more effective than dimethylsulfoxide.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research