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Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of buprenorphine on cardiopulmonary variables and on abdominal auscultation scores in horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were restrained in stocks and allocated to 2 treatments in a randomized crossover design, with 1-week intervals between each treatment. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IV as a control, whereas buprenorphine (10 μg/kg, IV) was administered to the experimental group. Cardiopulmonary data were collected for 120 minutes after buprenorphine or saline solution administration. Abdominal auscultation scores were monitored for 2 and 12 hours after drug administration in the control and experimental groups, respectively.

Results—Following control treatment, horses remained calm while restrained in the stocks and no significant changes in cardiopulmonary variables were observed throughout the study. Buprenorphine administration caused excitatory phenomena (restlessness and head shaking). Heart rate, cardiac index, and arterial blood pressure were significantly increased after buprenorphine administration until the end of the observational period (120 minutes). Minimal changes were found in arterial blood gas tensions. Abdominal auscultation scores decreased significantly from baseline for 4 hours after buprenorphine administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance— Buprenorphine induced excitement and hemodynamic stimulation with minimal changes in arterial blood gas tensions. These effects may impact the clinical use of buprenorphine in horses. Further studies are indicated to investigate the effects of buprenorphine on gastrointestinal motility and fecal output.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate analgesic effects of epidurally administered neostigmine alone or in combination with morphine in dogs after ovariohysterectomy.

Animals—40 healthy bitches.

Procedures—After acepromazine premedication, anesthesia was induced. Dogs randomly received 1 of the following 4 epidural treatments 30 minutes before ovariohysterectomy (n = 10/group): saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control), morphine (0.1 mg/kg), neostigmine (10 μg/kg), or morphine-neostigmine (0.1 mg/kg and 10 μg/kg, respectively). Analgesia was assessed for 24 hours after surgery by use of a visual analogue scale (VAS; scale of 0 to 10) or numeric descriptive scale (NDS; scale of 0 to 24) and by the need for supplemental analgesia (morphine [0.5 mg/kg, IM] administered when VAS was ≥ 4 or NDS was ≥ 8).

Results—Significantly more control dogs (n = 8) received supplemental analgesia, compared with the number of neostigmine-treated dogs (1); no dogs in the remaining groups received supplemental analgesia. Compared with values for the control dogs, the NDS scores were lower for morphine-neostigmine–treated dogs (from 2 to 6 hours and at 12 hours) and for morphine-treated dogs (all time points). The NDS scores were lower for morphine-treated dogs at 3, 12, and 24 hours, compared with values for neostigmine-treated dogs. The VAS was less sensitive than the NDS for detecting differences among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epidurally administered neostigmine reduced the use of supplemental analgesia after ovariohysterectomy in dogs. However, analgesic effects were less pronounced than for epidurally administered morphine or morphine-neostigmine. Adding neostigmine to epidurally administered morphine did not potentiate opioid-induced analgesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) and antinociceptive effects of buprenorphine in horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses received each of 3 treatments (10 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, 5 μg of buprenorphine/kg, or 10 μg of buprenorphine/kg).Treatments were administered IV. Order of treatments was randomized, and there was a 10-day interval between subsequent treatments. Spontaneous locomotor activity was investigated in a behavioral box by use of infrared photoelectric sensors connected to a computer, which detected movement of each horse. Antinociceptive effect was investigated by hoof-withdrawal reflex latency (HWRL) and skin-twitching reflex latency (STRL) after painful stimulation with a heat lamp.

Results—Moderate excitement was observed in all horses from 5 to 10 minutes after the administration of both dosages of buprenorphine. The SLA increased significantly for 6 and 14 hours after IV administration of 5 and 10 μg of buprenorphine/kg, respectively. Values for HWRL increased significantly only at 30 minutes after injection of 5 μg of buprenorphine/kg, whereas STRL and HWRL each increased significantly from 1 to 6 hours (except at 2 and 4 hours) and 11 hours, respectively, after injection of 10 μg of buprenorphine/kg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV injection of buprenorphine caused a dose-dependent increase in SLA, but only the dose of 10 μg/kg induced analgesia on the basis of results for the experimental method used.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare detomidine hydrochloride and romifidine as premedicants in horses undergoing elective surgery.

Animals—100 client-owned horses.

Procedure—After administration of acepromazine (0.03 mg/kg, IV), 50 horses received detomidine hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg of body weight, IV) and 50 received romifidine (0.1 mg/kg, IV) before induction and maintenance of anesthesia with ketamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) and halothane, respectively. Arterial blood pressure and blood gases, ECG, and heart and respiratory rates were recorded. Induction and recovery were timed and graded.

Results—Mean (± SD) duration of anesthesia for all horses was 104 ± 28 minutes. Significant differences in induction and recovery times or grades were not detected between groups. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) decreased in both groups 30 minutes after induction, compared with values at 10 minutes. From 40 to 70 minutes after induction, MABP was significantly higher in detomidine-treated horses, compared with romifidine-treated horses, although more romifidine-treated horses received dobutamine infusions. In all horses, mean respiratory rate ranged from 9 to 11 breaths/min, PaO2 from 200 to 300 mm Hg, PaCO2 from 59 to 67 mm Hg, arterial pH from 7.33 to 7.29, and heart rate from 30 to 33 beats/min, with no significant differences between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Detomidine and romifidine were both satisfactory premedicants. Romifidine led to more severe hypotension than detomidine, despite administration of dobutamine to more romifidine-treated horses. Both detomidine and romifidine are acceptable α2-adrenoceptor agonists for use as premedicants before general anesthesia in horses; however, detomidine may be preferable when maintenance of blood pressure is particularly important. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:359–363)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate adverse effects of long-term oral administration of carprofen, etodolac, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and meloxicam in dogs.

Animals—36 adult dogs.

Procedures—Values for CBC, urinalysis, serum biochemical urinalyses, and occult blood in feces were investigated before and 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after daily oral administration (n = 6 dogs/group) of lactose (1 mg/kg, control treatment), etodolac (15 mg/kg), meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg), carprofen (4 mg/kg), and ketoprofen (2 mg/kg for 4 days, followed by 1 mg/kg daily thereafter) or flunixin (1 mg/kg for 3 days, with 4-day intervals). Gastroscopy was performed before and after the end of treatment.

Results—For serum γ-glutamyltransferase activity, values were significantly increased at day 30 in dogs treated with lactose, etodolac, and meloxicam within groups. Bleeding time was significantly increased in dogs treated with carprofen at 30 and 90 days, compared with baseline. At 7 days, bleeding time was significantly longer in dogs treated with meloxicam, ketoprofen, and flunixin, compared with control dogs. Clotting time increased significantly in all groups except those treated with etodolac. At day 90, clotting time was significantly shorter in flunixin-treated dogs, compared with lactose-treated dogs. Gastric lesions were detected in all dogs treated with etodolac, ketoprofen, and flunixin, and 1 of 6 treated with carprofen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen induced the lowest frequency of gastrointestinal adverse effects, followed by meloxicam. Monitoring for adverse effects should be considered when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat dogs with chronic pain.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research