To determine morphological characteristics of subchondral cystic lesions (SCLs) in the proximal phalanx (PP) of adult horses.
Radiographs and/or CT scans of PP from 46 horses.
There were horses with a SCL in PP, which was diagnosed by radiography and/or computed tomography, included. Additional data (signalment, history, orthopedic examination) were collected retrospectively for each case.
Forty-six horses met the required inclusion criteria, with a total of 62 SCLs. Forty-three SCLs (70.5%) were located in the proximal PP (group A). Forty-four percent of these were associated with short, incomplete fractures, while 30 of the proximal PP SCLs (69.7%) were found mid sagittal. Proximal SCLs mostly showed a blurred, irregular shape (62.8%) and long, as well as wide, but shallow shapes in CT. Eighteen SCLs (29.5%) were found in the distal PP, near the proximal interphalangeal joint (group B). In contrast to the described proximal SCLs, the distal SCLs were of circular or oval shape, well delineated (77.8%), and distinctly larger. Horses of group A were significantly older (mean age, 11.47 years) than horses of group B (mean age, 6.72 years).
The distribution and morphological attributes of proximal PP SCLs as well as their association to subchondral bone lesions and short, incomplete proximal fractures indicate more recently developed lesions due to chronic stress factors, such as repetitive trauma to the cartilage and subchondral bone. In contrast, morphology and distribution of distal SCLs showed high accordance with developmental bone cysts originating from a failure of endochondral ossification.
Objective—To estimate genetic population variables
for 6 radiographic criteria of canine hip dysplasia
Animals—664 full- and half-siblings from a colony of
Procedure—Heritability estimates and genetic correlations
were calculated for 6 radiographic criteria of
CHD. Two evaluation protocols were compared: the
grade of the most severely affected hip joint and the
sum of the scores for both hip joints. The predictive
performance of estimated breeding values was also
Results—The overall prevalence of CHD (Fédération
Cynologique Internationale grades C, D, and E) was
29.6%. Median age at radiographic examination was
377 days. Heritability for the total CHD grade,
Norberg angle (NA), coverage of the femoral head
(COV), craniodorsal acetabular rim (ACR), subchondral
bone sclerosis (SUBCH), shape of the femoral head
and neck (FHN), and osteoarthritic changes at the
insertion site of the joint capsule (JC) was estimated
as follows: 0.44, 0.43, 0.46, 0.37, 0.32, 0.21, and
0.05, respectively. Heritability estimates were slightly
higher for the sum of the scores for both hip joints. If
NA and COV were included as fixed effects in the
model for the dependent variables ACR, SUBCH,
FHN, and JC , then heritability of these traits significantly
decreased (0.08 to 0.15). High scores of NA
and COV lead to a significant increase of the scores
of the remaining criteria.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Canine hip
dysplasia is heritable to a moderate degree. Signs of
subluxation revealed the highest heritability estimates.
The criteria ACR, SUBCH, FHN, and JC were
strongly influenced by NA and COV. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To investigate subjective and computerized
methods of evaluation of color Doppler (CD) and
power Doppler (PD) ultrasonographic images
(obtained before and after administration of contrast
medium) for quantitative assessment of vascularity
and perfusion of various naturally occurring tumors in
Sample Population—34 tumors in 34 dogs.
Procedure—Tumors in dogs were examined via CD
and PD ultrasonography before and after IV injection
of a microbubble contrast agent (pre- and postcontrast
examinations, respectively). Images were digitized
for subjective assessment of vessel density and
vascular pattern and computer-aided assessment of
parameters of vascularity (fractional area [FA]) and
perfusion (color-weighted FA [CWFA] and mean color
Results—With both analysis methods, more vessels
were identified in precontrast PD ultrasonographic
images than in precontrast CD ultrasonographic
images. Moreover, compared with values for precontrast
PD ultrasonography, FA, CWFA, and mean color
level were higher for postcontrast PD ultrasonography.
In postcontrast images, there was a significant
association between vessel densities determined
through subjective and computerized assessments.
Although sample size was small, vascularity of squamous
cell carcinomas was significantly greater than
that of other tumor types. Ten of the 19 soft tissue
sarcomas had low vessel density with minor contrast
enhancement. With increasing gross tumor volume,
FA and CWFA decreased for all Doppler ultrasonographic
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Higher values
of the ultrasonographic parameters representing vascularity
and perfusion of tumors in dogs were determined
via PD ultrasonography after administration of
contrast medium than via PD or CD ultrasonography
without administration of contrast medium. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:21–29)
Objective—To determine the incidence of adverse events within 24 hours after contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in dogs and cats and compare the risk of death within 24 hours after imaging for animals that underwent ultrasonography with and without injection of a contrast agent.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—750 animals (411 case dogs, 238 control dogs, 77 case cats, and 24 control cats).
Procedures—At 11 institutions, medical records were reviewed of dogs and cats that had CEUS performed (cases) as were medical records of dogs and cats with clinical signs similar to those of case animals that had ultrasonography performed without injection of a contrast agent (controls). Information regarding signalment; preexisting disease; type, dose, and administration route of contrast agent used; immediate (within 1 hour after CEUS) and delayed (> 1 and ≤ 24 hours after CEUS) adverse events; and occurrence and cause of death (when available) was extracted from each medical record. Risk of death within 24 hours after ultrasonography was compared between case and control animals.
Results—Of the 411 case dogs, 3 had immediate adverse events (vomiting or syncope) and 1 had a delayed adverse event (vomiting). No adverse events were recorded for case cats. Twenty-three of 357 (6.4%) clinically ill case animals and 14 of 262 (5.3%) clinically ill control animals died within 24 hours after ultrasonography; risk of death did not differ between cases and controls.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that CEUS was safe in dogs and cats.