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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, and postmortem abnormalities in New World camelids with pancreatic necrosis.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—10 llamas and 1 alpaca.

Procedures—Medical records of animals in which a diagnosis of pancreatic necrosis had been made on the basis of histologic examination of necropsy specimens or on the basis of clinical signs and results of clinicopathologic testing were reviewed.

Results—The initial owner complaint varied, and various other conditions were diagnosed. Clinical and clinicopathologic abnormalities were vague. Amylase activity was higher in abdominal fluid than in serum in 5 of 7 animals, and lipase activity was higher in abdominal fluid than in serum in all 7. Four animals survived, and 7 died or were euthanatized. Only 1 of the animals that died had marked inflammation of the pancreatic parenchyma. All 7 had necrosis and saponification of fat in and surrounding the pancreas.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that pancreatic necrosis may develop in New World camelids, but clinical signs are vague, and the condition may easily be confused with other diseases. The only laboratory test that appeared to be helpful in the antemortem diagnosis of pancreatic necrosis was comparison of amylase and lipase activities in abdominal fluid and serum. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:241–244)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe the anatomy of the sternum in llamas, define the surgical approach to the sternum for collection of cancellous bone graft tissue, and compare the histologic appearance of graft tissue obtained from the sternum with that obtained from the proximal portion of the tibia.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

12 llamas, 3 to 19 years old, that had been submitted for necropsy.

Procedure

Radiographs were taken of the sternum and left tibia of the llamas. Measurements of the sternum were determined from the radiographs and adjusted for magnification. Sternebrae volumes were estimated from these measurements. Anatomic dissections to the center of the fourth sternebra and the proximal portion of the tibia were made, and a surgical approach to the sternum was developed. Cancellous graft tissue was obtained from each site and submitted for histologic evaluation.

Results

Sternebrae 3, 4, and 5 were significantly larger in volume than the other sternebrae. The ventral aspect of the fourth sternebra was readily accessed for removal of graft tissue by making a 6-cm-long ventral midline incision centered 17 cm craniad to the xiphoid. Mean soft tissue thickness overlying the ventral aspect of the fourth sternebra was 3.1 cm. More tissue was obtained from the sternal (mean, 9.11 g) than from the tibial (mean, 5.16 g) sites. Sternal graft tissue consisted of trabecular bone spicules with predominantly hematopoietic marrow, whereas tibial tissue consisted of trabecular bone spicules with only fatty marrow.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The fourth sternebra in llamas is readily accessible for obtaining autogenous cancellous bone graft tissue that consists of predominantly hematopoietic marrow. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:362–365)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In a sheep flock, Chlamydia psittaci, Campylobacter fetus, Ca jejuni, and Salmonella dublin caused abortions. A vaccine that contained C psittaci type I from 2 sources: a cow with pneumonia and an aborted ovine fetus, Ca fetus, Ca jejuni, and 4 strains of K99 Escherichia coli was given to 240 ewes before they were bred. All fetuses, placentas, and lambs, that died within 36 hours of birth were examined for infectious agents. Of 55 abortions, 30 (55%) were caused by Chlamydia or Campylobacter spp; 25 of the 30 (83%) abortions took place in the nonvaccinated group (n = 240). Forty-five more lambs survived in the vaccinated group than in the nonvaccinated group. Abortion rates for Chlamydia and Campylobacter spp (2.1 vs 10.4% in vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups, respectively) were significantly different (P = 0.003). Abortion rates for S dublin were not significantly different between groups. The Salmonella epizootic was controlled quickly by sanitation and treatment procedures. The vaccine was at least 80% efficacious against Chlamydia and Campylobacter spp and appeared to be protective.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To identify factors associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in llamas and alpacas.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

30 llamas and 1 alpaca.

Procedures

Medical records were searched to identify llamas or alpacas in which a histologic diagnosis of HL was made. Information was retrieved on signalment, history, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of necropsy or examination of biopsy specimens. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and χ2 analyses.

Results

Females were affected more often than males; however, the sex distribution was not different from that of the camelid population in the diagnostic laboratory's database. Fifty-four percent of the females were pregnant, and 46% were lactating. Most affected camelids were 6 to 10 years old. Anorexia and recent weight loss were common (51.6% of camelids). An infective agent was found in only one llama, and toxins and mineral deficiencies were not identified. The most common abnormalities on serum biochemical analysis were a high concentration of bile acids, high activities of γ-glutamyltrans-ferase (GGT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hypoproteinemia. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) were high in those camelids in which these compounds were assayed. Twenty-nine camelids did not survive.

Clinical Implications

Sick camelids should be considered at risk for developing HL, especially those with anorexia or the metabolic demands of pregnancy and lactation. Other stresses also appear to contribute. High concentrations of NEFA, γ-HB, and bile acids; high activities of GGT and AST; and hypoproteinemia may indicate that HL has developed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1368–1372)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine clinical and surgical abnormalities in, and long-term outcome of, horses that undergo surgery because of colic secondary to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

11 horses.

Procedure

Medical records of horses that had undergone abdominal surgery and in which IBD had been diagnosed on the basis of histologic examination of intestinal biopsy specimens were reviewed.

Results

5 horses were examined because of acute colic and 6 were examined because of chronic colic. At surgery, all 11 horses had edematous or hemorrhagic bowel segments suggestive of IBD. In addition, 6 horses had circumferential mural bands (CMB) causing constriction of the small (4 horses) or large (2) intestine. Intestinal resections were performed in 7 horses. All 11 horses survived surgery and were discharged from the hospital; 10 horses were still alive at the time of follow-up (1.5 to 7 years after surgery).

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that IBD is an uncommon cause of colic in horses. Surgical resection of segments of intestine with constrictive CMB may relieve clinical signs of colic. Horses with IBD that had surgery had a good prognosis for long-term survival. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1527-1531)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association