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  • Author or Editor: Stéphane B. Alkabes x
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Objective—To determine whether joint lavage performed simultaneously with IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) reduces the effectiveness of IVRLP and to compare 2 types of tourniquets used for this procedure in horses.

Animals—11 adult horses.

Procedures—2 groups of 6 horses were tested by use of a pneumatic or an Esmarch tourniquet (1 horse was tested twice [once in each group]). Standing IVRLP with amikacin (500 mg) was performed for 30 minutes. Simultaneously, the metacarpophalangeal joint was lavaged with 2 L of lactated Ringer's solution and the egress fluids were collected. Samples of the distal interphalangeal joint synovial fluid and blood from the digital and jugular veins were collected at set time intervals. Amikacin concentrations in all fluids were determined via fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

Results—Less amikacin was measured in the systemic circulation with the Esmarch tourniquet than with the pneumatic tourniquet. Amikacin concentrations in the synovial fluid from the distal interphalangeal joints of the Esmarch tourniquet group ranged from 45.1 to 1,968 μg/mL and in the pneumatic tourniquet group ranged from 1.7 to 92.3 μg/mL after 30 minutes of IVRLP. Total loss of amikacin in the egress fluids from the joint lavage ranged from < 1.36 to 7.72 mg for the Esmarch tourniquet group and from < 1.20 to 1.75 mg for the pneumatic tourniquet group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On standing horses, IVRLP performed simultaneously with joint lavage resulted in negligible loss of amikacin in the egress lavage fluids. The Esmarch tourniquet was more effective in preventing loss of amikacin from the distal portion of the limb, easier to use, and less expensive than the pneumatic tourniquet.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the effects of heparin administration on urine protein excretion during the developmental stages of experimentally induced laminitis in horses.

Animals—13 horses.

Procedures—Horses received unfractionated heparin (80 U/kg, SC, q 8 h; n = 7) or no treatment (control group; 6) beginning 3 days prior to induction of laminitis. All horses were given 3 oligofructose loading doses (1 g/kg each) at 24-hour intervals and a laminitis induction dose (10 g of oligofructose/kg) 24 hours following the final loading dose (designated as 0 hours) via nasogastric tube. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before administration of the first loading dose (baseline) and at 0 and 24 hours; urine protein-to-creatinine (UP:C) ratio was determined at 0 hours and every 4 hours thereafter. Lameness was evaluated every 6 hours, and horses were euthanized when Obel grade 2 ameness was observed.

Results—Mean ± SD time until euthanasia did not differ significantly between the heparin-treated (28.9 ± 6.5 hours) and control (29.0 ± 6.9 hours) horses. The UP:C ratio was significantly increased from baseline at 20 to 28 hours after induction of laminitis (ie, 4 ± 4 hours before lameness was evident) in control horses but did not change significantly from baseline in heparin-treated horses. Serum glucose or insulin concentration did not change significantly from baseline in either group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urine protein excretion increased during the developmental stages of carbohydrate-induced laminitis in horses; administration of heparin prevented that increase, but did not delay onset or decrease severity of lameness.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research