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- Author or Editor: Sheree E. Cross x
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Objective—To investigate penetration of a topically applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) into tissues and synovial fluid.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized and microdialysis probes placed in the dermis and gluteal muscle over each coxofemoral (hip) joint. Methylsalicylate (MeSA) was applied topically over the left hip joint. Dialysate and plasma (blood samples from the cephalic and femoral veins) were obtained during the subsequent 5 hours. Dogs were euthanatized, and tissue samples and synovial fluid were collected and analyzed for salicylic acid (SA) and MeSA by use of highpressure liquid chromatography.
Results—SA and MeSA concentrations increased rapidly (< 30 minutes after application) in dialysate obtained from treated dermis. Salicylic acid also appeared in plasma within 30 minutes and reached a plateau concentration after 2 hours, although combined drug concentrations (SA plus MeSA) in plasma obtained from femoral vein samples were twice those measured in plasma obtained from the cephalic vein (SA only). Treated muscle had a progressive decrease in NSAID concentration with increasing depth (SA and MeSA), but it was significantly higher than the concentration in untreated muscle. Substantial amounts of SA and MeSA were also measured in synovial fluid of treated joints.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topically applied NSAIDs can penetrate deeply into tissues and synovial fluid. Local concentrations higher than circulating systemic concentrations are suggestive that direct diffusion and local blood redistribution are contributing to this effect. Systemic blood concentrations may be inadequate to describe regional kinetics of topically applied drugs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1128–1132)
Objective—To investigate in vitro transdermal absorption of fentanyl from patches through skin samples obtained from various anatomic regions of dogs.
Sample Population—Skin samples from 5 Greyhounds.
Procedure—Skin samples from the dogs' thoracic, neck, and groin regions were collected postmortem and frozen. After samples were thawed, circular sections were cut and placed in Franz-type diffusion cells in a water bath (32°C). A commercial fentanyl patch, attached to an acetate strip with a circular hole, was applied to each skin sample. Cellulose strips were used as control membranes. Samples of receptor fluid in the diffusion cells were collected at intervals for 48 hours, and fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—Mean ± SD release rate of fentanyl from the patch, defined by its absorption rate through the non–rate-limiting cellulose membrane, was linear during the first 8 hours (2.01 ± 0.05 µg/cm2 of cellulose membrane/h) and then decreased. Fentanyl passed through skin from the groin region at a faster rate and with a significantly shorter lag time, compared with findings in neck or thoracic skin samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro, fentanyl from a patch was absorbed more quickly and to a greater extent through skin collected from the groin region of dogs, compared with skin samples from the thoracic and neck regions. Placement of fentanyl patches in the groin region of dogs may decrease the lag time to achieve analgesia perioperatively; however, in vivo studies are necessary to confirm these findings.( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1697–1700)
Objective—To determine the effects of various vehicles on the penetration and retention of hydrocortisone applied to canine skin.
Sample Population—20 canine skin samples obtained from the thorax, neck, and groin regions of 5 Greyhounds.
Procedure—Skin was harvested from dogs after euthanasia and stored at –20°C until required. The skin was then defrosted and placed into diffusion cells, which were maintained at approximately 32°C by a water bath. Saturated solutions of hydrocortisone that contained trace amounts of radiolabelled [14C]-hydrocortisone in each vehicle (ie, PBS solution [PBSS] alone, 50% ethanol [EtOH] in PBSS [wt/wt], and 50% propylene glycol in PBSS [wt/wt]) were applied to the outer (stratum corneum) surface of each skin sample, and aliquots of receptor fluid were collected for 24 hours and analyzed for hydrocortisone.
Results—The maximum flux of hydrocortisone was significantly higher for all sites when dissolved in a vehicle containing 50% EtOH, compared with PBSS alone or 50% propylene glycol, with differences more prominent in skin from the neck region. In contrast, higher residues of hydrocortisone were found remaining within the skin when PBSS alone was used as a vehicle, particularly in skin from the thorax and neck.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Penetration of topically applied hydrocortisone is enhanced when EtOH is used in vehicle formulation. Significant regional differences (ie, among the thorax, neck, and groin areas) are also found in the transdermal penetration and skin retention of hydrocortisone. Variability in clinical response to hydrocortisone can be expected in relation to formulation design and site of application. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:43–47)