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  • Author or Editor: Shengnan Li x
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To investigate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in layers.


33 40-week-old laying hens were used.


30 laying hens were divided into 2 groups: the first group was injected with 8 mg/kg LPS, while the second group was injected with sterile saline. At the start of the study, 3 birds served as a baseline and were used as the time 0 controls for both the saline and LPS-treated groups. Blood and spleen tissues were collected at 0 (before) and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours after injection.


LPS administration increased splenic mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α (P < .001) and serum IL-6 levels (P < .01) compared to saline injection. The mRNA expression of most cytokine genes increased rapidly toward peak values within 2 hours after the LPS injection, and then the difference between the saline and LPS treatments got smaller as time went on; serum IL-6 reached its highest concentration 2 hours after LPS administration. The magnitude of LPS-induced upregulation of gene expression was the highest for IL-6, followed by IL-1β and IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α was the least affected.


The temporal and quantitative profile of these inflammatory mediators generated from this study provides valuable information in identifying the optimal time window and appropriate biomarkers for LPS-induced inflammation, which has significant implications in evaluating the effects of interventions on the immune system of chickens.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research