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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To identify clinical indicators that may help identify postoperative pain in cats after ovariohysterectomy.

Animals

Healthy, laboratory animal source cats.

Procedure

Clinical indicators of pain were identified, and relief from pain in response to butorphanol was studied in 5 groups of cats. 10 cats had 1 hour of general anesthesia only, followed by recovery without additional medication. 10 cats had general anesthesia and ovariohysterectomy, followed by recovery without additional medication. 10 cats had general anesthesia, ovariohysterectomy, and postoperative administration of 0.1 mg of butorphanol/kg of body weight. Another 10 cats had general anesthesia, ovariohysterectomy, and postoperative administration of 0.3 mg butorphanol/kg. 10 cats received 0.1 mg of butorphanol/kg, IM, only. Samples and recorded data were obtained before, during, and after the anesthesia period. Clinical variables measured included heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, PCV, and blood glucose concentration. Results were compared with changes in norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol concentrations.

Results

Cats that did not receive analgesics had higher cortisol concentration than did cats without surgery and cats that received butorphanol after surgery. Systolic blood pressure measured by ultrasonic Doppler was found to be predictive of cortisol concentration, using a multiple linear regression model.

Conclusions

Cortisol concentration increased in response to surgical stress and pain, and this increase was diminished by use of butorphanol.

Clinical Relevance

Systolic blood pressure was the best clinical predictor of postoperative pain. (Am J Vet Res 1996;209:1674–1678)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To identify clinical variables that indicate postoperative pain in cats after ovariohysterectomy in a veterinary hospital setting.

Animals

40 cats.

Procedure

Cats were anesthetized and ovariohysterectomized by senior veterinary students. Butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg [n = 20] or 0.3 mg/kg [20] of body weight) was administered IM after surgery. Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after the anesthestic period for measurements of PCV and blood glucose and cortisol concentrations. Clinical variables measured included heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Data for these variables were compared with changes in cortisol concentrations and with similar data—which was used as historical control data— obtained from 20 cats in another study (10 that had been ovariohysterectomized but had not received butorphanol and 10 that had only been anesthetized).

Results

Surgical durations were longer in this study, and cats had higher cortisol concentrations, compared with historical control cats. Objective clinical variables did not consistently correlate with changes in cortisol concentration.

Conclusions

Cortisol concentration increased in response to surgical stress and pain. This response was greater in cats in which duration of surgery was longer.

Clinical Relevance

The objective clinical variables evaluated in this study were not consistent indicators of pain in an uncontrolled, clinical situation. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:432-436)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The vascular patterns to pelvic limb muscles were studied in 6 dogs (12 limbs) to identify muscles most suitable for transposition in the treatment of large wounds. Gross dissection of injected specimens and angiography were used to identify the vascular pedicles. The vascular peicles to several muscles were generally consistent, and any variations would not interfere with most muscle transfers. The cranial part of the sartorius, gracillis, semitendinosus, and rectus femoris muscles were identified as suitable candidates for transfer. The caudal part of the sartorius, cranial tibial, and long digital extensor muscles have segmentalized vascular patterns that would limit its arc of rotation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Medical records of 29 dogs with cholelithiasis were reviewed. Aged female small-breed dogs were overrepresented. Mean age was 9.5 years, and mean weight was 12 kg. Vomiting, anorexia, weakness, polyuria/polydipsia, weight loss, icterus, fever, and signs of abdominal pain were the most common clinical signs. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift, monocytosis, high activity of serum hepatic enzymes, hypoalbuminemia, and high concentrations of serum total bilirubin were common. Radiopaque choleliths were evident on abdominal radiography of 13 of 27 dogs. Microbial culturing of bile isolated organisms in 15 of 20 dogs. Gram-negative bacteria were most common.

Surgery was performed in 22 dogs. Four dogs were treated medically, and 3 dogs were euthanatized without treatment. Surgical treatment consisted of cholecystectomy in 11 dogs, choledochotomy in 5 dogs, cholecystotomy in 4 dogs, and cholecystojejunostomy in 1 dog. Sphincter of Oddiotomy was performed in 1 dog. Five dogs had concurrent generalized peritonitis attributable to bile. Multiple choleliths were detected in most of the dogs. Choleliths were located in the gallbladder in 20 dogs and in the bile ducts in 14 dogs. The most common abnormalities of the gallbladder, identified histologically, were chronic cholecystitis, mucosal hyperplasia, and pericholecystic inflammation. The most common abnormalities of the liver were cholestasis, hepatocellular degeneration, and periportal fibrosis. Survival rate of dogs that underwent cholecystectomy tended to be higher (86%) than that of dogs treated via cholecystotomy (50%) or cholecystectomy in combination with choledochotomy (33%). Dogs that underwent medical treatment, abdominal exploratory, cholecystojenunostomy, choledochotomy, and sphincter of Oddiotomy died or were euthanatized because of redevelopment of clinical signs associated with cholelithiasis. None of the 9 surviving dogs had return of signs associated with cholelithiasis. Cholecystectomy in combination with antibiotic administration appeared to be the treatment associated with the lowest morbidity and mortality in dogs with clinically evident cholelithiasis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether dogs had prostatic disease, urinary incontinence, or urinary tract infection 1 year after partial prostatectomy to treat prostatic abscesses and cysts.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

20 male dogs with prostatic abscesses or cysts. Fifteen dogs had evidence of urinary tract infection. Only 8 dogs urinated normally; the remainder dribbled, had obstructions, or required medical treatment.

Procedure

Partial prostatectomy was performed on each dog. Sexually Intact dogs (n = 12) also were castrated.

Results

None of the dogs had return of prostatic cystic enlargement or clinical signs of prostatic disease during the first year after surgery. Two dogs were euthanatized within 1 year after surgery, with 1 dog having prostatic enlargement and adenocarcinoma and 1 dog having unrelated lymphosarcoma. Fifteen dogs were continent. The remaining 5 dogs urinated normally but had intermittent and minor incontinence. Eleven dogs had no signs of infection 1 year after surgery, 5 had pyuria or positive urine bacteriologic culture results, 2 did not have urinalysis performed, and 2 were euthanatized.

Clinical Implications

Dogs with severe prostatic abscesses or cysts and infections can be successfully treated by partial prostatectomy with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator and castration, resulting in long-term disease resolution. Although most dogs with severe prostatic disease do not urinate normally before surgery, nearly all dogs resume normal micturition after partial prostatectomy. Postoperative results of partial prostatectomy appear to be better than those of previous drainage techniques for treatment of prostatic cavitary disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:868–871)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association