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Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of variations in dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) on systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP) in cats with normal and reduced renal function.

Animals—21 adult cats (7 with intact kidneys [control cats; group C], 7 with unilateral renal infarction with contralateral nephrectomy [remnant-kidney model; group RK], and 7 with unilateral renal infarction and contralateral renal wrapping and concurrent oral administration of amlodipine [remnant-wrap model; group WA]).

Procedure—All cats were sequentially fed 3 diets that differed only in NaCl content (50, 100, or 200 mg of Na/kg); each diet was fed for 7 days. The ABP was recorded continuously by radiotelemetry, and renal function (glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) was determined on the sixth day of each feeding period.

Results—Dietary supplementation with NaCl did not affect ABP, but it increased GFR in groups C and WA. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis was activated in groups RK and WA at the lowest NaCl intake, but supplementation with NaCl suppressed this activation in group WA. The lowest NaCl intake was associated with hypokalemia and a high fractional excretion of potassium that decreased in response to supplementation with NaCl. Arterial baroreceptor resetting was evident after chronic hypertension but was not modified by dietary supplementation with NaCl.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low NaCl intake was associated with inappropriate kaliuresis, reduced GFR, and activation of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis without evidence of a beneficial effect on ABP. Therefore, this common dietary maneuver could contribute to hypokalemic nephropathy and progressive renal injury in cats. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:620–627)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare 2 techniques of inducing combined renal insufficiency and systemic hypertension in cats.

Animals—22 cats 6 to 12 months of age.

Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Control (C) group cats had 2 intact kidneys, remnant kidney (RK) group cats underwent unilateral partial renal infarction and contralateral nephrectomy, and remnant-wrap (W) group cats underwent unilateral partial renal infarction and partial abtation and wrapping of the contralateral kidney. Systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) was measured continuously by use of implanted radiotelemetric devices. Renal function was assessed via determination of glomerular filtration rate, measurement of serum creatinine and BUN concentrations, and determination of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C). Serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were measured on day 75.

Results—Systolic BP was significantly higher in groups RK and W than in group C, and systolic BP was significantly higher in group W than in group RK. Serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were significantly higher in group W, compared with groups C and RK. Glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in groups RK and W, compared with group C. Histologic indices of renal injury and UP/C were significantly higher in group W, compared with groups C and RK.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypertensive renal insufficiency in group W was characterized by marked sustained systemic hypertension, decreased renal function, proteinuria, activation of the reninangiotensin-aldosterone axis, and renal structural injury. Results support the hypothesis that marked systemic hypertension, activation of the reninangiotensin- aldosterone axis, and proteinuria may damage the kidney of cats with preexisting renal insufficiency. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1006–1013)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether amlodipine besylate decreases systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) and reduces the prevalence of complications in cats with induced hypertensive renal insufficiency.

Animals—20 cats with partial nephrectomy.

Procedure—Following reduction in renal mass, 10 cats were administered 0.25 mg of amlodipine/kg, PO, q 24 h (group A). Ten cats served as a control group (group C). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean BP (MBP), physical activity, and pulse rate were measured continuously for 36 days by use of radiotelemetric devices.

Results—Compared with values for clinically normal cats, SBP, DBP, and MBP were significantly increased in cats of group C. Cats in group A had significant reductions in SBP, DBP, and MBP, compared with values for cats in group C. Albuminuria but not urine protein- to-creatinine ratio was significantly correlated ( R 2 = 0.317) with SBP in hypertensive cats. Prevalence of ocular lesions attributable to systemic hypertension in group C (7 cats) was greater than that observed in group A (2). Two cats in group C were euthanatized on day 16 because of nuerologic complications attributed to systemic hypertension. One normotensive cat in group A was euthanatized because of purulent enteritis of unknown cause on day 27.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Amlodipine had an antihypertensive effect in cats with coexistent systemic hypertension and renal insufficiency. Its use may improve the prognosis for cats with systemic hypertension by decreasing the risk of ocular injury or neurologic complications induced by high BP. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:833–839)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research