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OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of silver-coated versus standard silicone urinary catheters on the incidence of catheter-associated bacteriuria (CAB) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in dogs.

DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trial.

ANIMALS 36 dogs requiring urinary bladder catheterization for ≥ 24 hours.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a silver-coated or non–silver-coated (control) silicone Foley catheter. Urine samples for cytologic examination and bacterial culture were collected at the time of catheter insertion and daily until catheters were removed (≥ 24 hours to 7 days later). Results were compared between groups.

RESULTS No significant differences were identified between catheter groups in the incidence of CAB or CAUTI. Although the median time to development of cytologically detected bacteriuria, culture-detected bacteriuria, and CAUTI did not differ significantly between groups, median time to CAB development (either method) was significantly longer for dogs that received a control catheter rather than a silver-coated catheter. For both types of catheters combined, older age was a significant predictor of culture-detected bacteriuria, and longer duration of catheterization was a significant predictor of culture-detected bacteriuria and overall CAB.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Silver-coated urinary catheters provided no clinical benefit over standard urinary catheters for the dogs of this study and were associated with earlier development of CAB but not CAUTI. A larger prospective study is required to definitively determine whether the use of silver-coated urinary catheters should or should not be considered to reduce the risk of CAB or CAUTI in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for surgical intervention, complications, and outcome in dogs with an esophageal foreign body (EFB).

DESIGN Retrospective observational study.

ANIMALS 224 incidents of EFB in 223 dogs evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1995 through 2014.

PROCEDURES Hospital records were reviewed to collect data regarding signalment, history, clinical signs, EFB type and location, procedures, complications, and outcomes. Breed distributions were compared between dogs with EFB and the entire canine patient population during the study period. Variables were tested for associations with each other and with outcomes.

RESULTS Terrier breeds were most common (71/233 [30.5%]). Duration of EFB entrapment, body weight, anorexia, lethargy, rectal temperature, and esophageal perforation were associated with the need for surgical intervention. Older age, longer duration of EFB entrapment, and perforation were associated with a poorer prognosis. Endoscopic retrieval or advancement into the stomach was successful for 183 of 219 (83.6%) EFBs, and 16 of 143 (11.2%) entrapments resulted in postprocedural esophageal stricture. Overall median duration of hospitalization was brief (1 day), and the need for surgical intervention was associated with a longer duration. Overall mortality rate was 5.4% (12/223); 90 of 102 (88.2%) dogs with a median follow-up period of 27 months after EFB treatment had an excellent outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Study findings suggested that endoscopic EFB retrieval remains the initial treatment option of choice for affected dogs, provided that esophageal perforation does not necessitate surgical intervention. Although esophageal stricture formation was the most common complication, the overall rate of this outcome was low.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare complications and outcome following unilateral, staged bilateral, and single-stage bilateral ventral bulla osteotomy (VBO) in cats.


282 client-owned cats treated by VBO at 25 veterinary referral and academic hospitals from 2005 through 2016.


Medical records of cats were reviewed to collect information on signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, surgical and postoperative management details, complications (anesthetic, surgical, and postoperative), and outcome. Associations were evaluated among selected variables.


Unilateral, staged bilateral, and single-stage bilateral VBO was performed in 211, 7, and 64 cats, respectively, representing 289 separate procedures. Eighteen (9%), 2 (29%), and 30 (47%) of these cats, respectively, had postoperative respiratory complications. Cats treated with single-stage bilateral VBO were significantly more likely to have severe respiratory complications and surgery-related death than cats treated with other VBO procedures. Overall, 68.2% (n = 197) of the 289 procedures were associated with Horner syndrome (19.4% permanently), 30.1% (87) with head tilt (22.1% permanently), 13.5% (39) with facial nerve paralysis (8.0% permanently), and 6.2% (18) with local disease recurrence. Cats with (vs without) Horner syndrome, head tilt, and facial nerve paralysis before VBO had 2.6, 3.3, and 5.6 times the odds, respectively, of having these conditions permanently.


Findings suggested that staged bilateral VBO should be recommended over single-stage bilateral VBO for cats with bilateral middle ear disease. Cats with Horner syndrome, head tilt, and facial nerve paralysis before surgery were more likely to have these conditions permanently following surgery than were cats without these conditions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association