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  • Author or Editor: Selwyn J. Barron x
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Summary

A subcutaneous soft tissue infection model in calves was used to study the in vivo response of Pasteurella haemolytica to erythromycin and dexamethasone. Two tissue chambers were implanted sc in each of 12 calves. At 45 days after implantation, all tissue chambers were inoculated with an erythromycin-sensitive strain of P haemolytica. Starting 24 hours after inoculation, calves were allotted to 4 groups of equal size and a 2 × 2-factorial arrangement of treatments was applied: 3 calves were given erythromycin (30 mg/kg of body weight, im, for 5 days), 3 calves were given dexamethasone(0.05 mg/kg, im, for 2 days), 3 calves were given erythromycin and dexamethasone, and the remaining calves served as nontreated controls. Chamber fluids were tested daily, and the response to treatment was measured. Neither erythromycin nor dexamethasone affected viability or growth of bacteria within tissue chambers. Dexamethasone had no effect on the influx of neutrophils into infected chambers. Despite repeated administration of a high dose of erythromycin and attainment of adequate concentration in serum, erythromycin concentration in chamber fluids did not exceed the minimal inhibitory concentration established in vitro. These results indicate that the clinical efficacy of erythromycin against P haemolytica sequestered in consolidated pneumonic lesions may not be well correlated with predictions based on serum pharmacokinetic and in vitro susceptibility data.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The development of Anaplasma marginale was studied in Dermacentor andersoni nymphs after they had fed on a calf with ascending Anaplasma infection. Gut tissues were collected on day 4 of tick feeding, from newly replete (fed) nymphs and on postfeeding days (pfd) 5, 10, 15, 20, and were processed for light and electron microscopy to determine density of A marginale colonies. Homogenates of gut tissues were prepared from nymphs collected on the same days and inoculated into susceptible, splenectomized calves to test for infectivity. Anaplasma colonies were detected in gut cells on pfd 5, 10, 15, and 20. Although colony density appeared to be higher on pfd 10 and 15, differences were not significant. Nymphal type-1 colonies were detected in highest numbers on pfd 5 and 10, transitional colonies were seen in highest numbers at pfd 10 and 15, and nymphal type-2 colonies were observed only on pfd 20. Gut homogenates that were collected from ticks at 4 days of feeding, when newly replete, and on pfd 20 caused anaplasmosis when injected into susceptible calves, but homogenates made from ticks collected on pfd 5, 10, and 15 were not infective. The data indicate that of the colony types of A marginale that develop in replete nymphs, nymphal type-1 and transitional colonies may contain organisms that are not infective for cattle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The development of Anaplasma marginale in midgut epithelial cells was studied in feeding, transmitting adult Dermacentor andersoni ticks. Laboratory-reared ticks experimentally infected as nymphs were allowed to feed from 1 to 9 days on susceptible calves. Gut tissues from ticks were collected on each day they fed (total, 9 days) and were processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. Colonies of A marginale were abundant during the first 6 days of feeding, after which numbers decreased. Colonies were adherent to the basement membrane of gut cells early during feeding, with resultant flattening of the colonies. Colonies also were seen in muscle cells on the hemocoel side of the basement membrane. Morphologic features of A marginale within muscle cells varied and were similar to those observed in gut cells. In addition, however, a large reticulated form in the colonies was observed in muscle cells and appeared to give rise to small particles by budding. Development of A marginale in muscle cells appears to represent an intermediate site of development between those in gut and in salivary glands.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Development of the rickettsia, Anaplasmamarginale, in salivary glands of male Dermacentor andersoni exposed as nymphs or adult ticks, was studied indirectly by inoculation of susceptible calves with homogenates and directly by examination, using light microscopy and a DNA probe; some unfed ticks were incubated before tissues were collected. Salivary gland homogenates made from ticks in every treatment group caused anaplasmosis when injected into susceptible calves; prepatent periods decreased as the time that ticks had fed increased. Colonies of A marginale were seen only in salivary glands of ticks exposed as adults and not in those exposed as nymphs; the percentage of salivary gland acini infected in these ticks increased linearly with feeding time. However, the probe detected A marginale DNA in salivary glands of ticks from both groups; the amount of DNA detected increased as feeding time was extended. The amount of A marginaleDNA appeared to remain constant in gut tissues, but to increase in salivary glands. Salivary glands of adult-infected male ticks that were incubated, but did not feed a second time, became infected with A marginale, and the pattern of infection of acini varied with incubation temperature. Development of A marginale in salivary glands appears to be coordinated with the tick feeding cycle; highest infection rate was observed in ticks exposed as adults.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The development and transmission of Anaplasma marginale was studied in Dermacentor andersoni males. Laboratory-reared male D andersoni were allowed to feed for 7 days on a calf with ascending A marginale parasitemia. The ticks were then held in a humidity chamber for 7 days before being placed on 2 susceptible calves. Anaplasmosis developed in the calves after incubation periods of 24 and 26 days. Gut and salivary glands were collected from ticks on each day of the 23-day experiment and examined with light and electron microscopy. Colonies of A marginale were first observed in midgut epithelial cells on the sixth day of feeding on infected calves, with the highest density of colonies found in gut cells while ticks were between feeding periods. The first colonies contained 1 large dense organism that subsequently gave rise to many reticulated organisms. Initially, these smaller organisms were electron-lucent and then became electron-dense. On the fifth day after ticks were transferred to susceptible calves for feeding, A marginale colonies were found in muscle cells on the hemocoel side of the gut basement membrane. A final site for development of A marginale was the salivary glands. Colonies were first seen in acinar cells on the first day that ticks fed on susceptible calves, with the highest percentage of infected host cells observed on days 7 to 9 of that feeding. Organisms within these colonies were initially electron-lucent, but became electron-dense.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research