To describe outcomes for dogs that underwent balloon dilation for palliative treatment of urethral obstruction caused by urothelial carcinoma.
12 client-owned dogs.
Medical records were searched to identify dogs with urothelial (bladder, urethra, or prostate) carcinoma that underwent balloon dilation for treatment of urethral obstruction between April 2010 and December 2015. Information regarding history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic imaging findings, balloon dilation technique, clinical outcomes, complications, and additional treatments was obtained by review of medical records.
Improvement in clinical signs of urethral obstruction was observed after the initial dilation procedure for 9 of 12 dogs. Urethral obstruction was known to recur in 5 dogs 48 to 296 days after the initial procedure. Three of these dogs underwent a second dilation procedure, with clinical improvement in all 3 dogs for 41 to 70 days. One of 2 dogs that had a third procedure after the second reobstruction had clinical improvement in urinary tract signs until subsequent death from metastatic disease 22 days later. Complications included hematuria, urinary incontinence, and dysuria; these resolved within a few days after treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Urethral balloon dilation was a minimally invasive procedure that provided relief of urethral obstruction from urothelial carcinoma in most dogs of the study population. Prospective studies are needed to identify optimal techniques for balloon dilation in dogs with neoplastic urethral obstructions and to identify patients that are likely to benefit most from the treatment.
To evaluate the effects of combining one-lung ventilation and carbon dioxide insufflation (OLV-CDI) on intrathoracic working space (determined by means of CT) during thoracoscopy in dogs and investigate conditions that could safely improve working space compared with OLV alone.
6 healthy Beagles.
Dogs were anesthetized, and right- or left-sided (n = 3/side) OLV was instituted. On the blocked side, a laparoscopic trocar sleeve was placed in the ninth intercostal space for CDI. CT was performed under 3 conditions: with OLV alone, with OLV-CDI at an intrapleural pressure (IPP) of 3 mm Hg, and with OLV-CDI at an IPP of 5 mm Hg. Working space volume (WSV), ventilation space volume (VSV), and thoracic cavity volume (TCV) were determined from CT images.
With OLV-CDI at an IPP of 3 or 5 mm Hg, WSV and TCV were significantly increased, compared with values obtained during OLV alone. With OLV-CDI at an IPP of 5 mm Hg, VSV and Spo2 were significantly decreased, compared with values obtained during OLV alone. Additionally, contralateral pneumothorax was observed in 4 dogs at an IPP of 5 mm Hg.
Combining OLV and CDI could provide a larger working space than OLV alone, even with an IPP of 3 mm Hg, in dogs of limited size. However, an evaluation of the effects on oxygenation and cardiovascular variables is needed before clinical use.
OBJECTIVE To assess the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of the hepatic vein for the detection of hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs.
ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES A prospective study was conducted. A catheter was surgically placed in the portal vein of each dog. Hypertension was induced by intraportal injection of microspheres (10 to 15 mg/kg) at 5-day intervals via the catheter. Microsphere injections were continued until multiple acquired portosystemic shunts were created. Portal vein pressure (PVP) was measured through the catheter. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed before and after establishment of hypertension. Time-intensity curves were generated from the region of interest in the hepatic vein. Perfusion variables measured for statistical analysis were hepatic vein arrival time, time to peak, time to peak phase (TTPP), and washout ratio. The correlation between CEUS variables and PVP was assessed by use of simple regression analysis.
RESULTS Time to peak and TTPP were significantly less after induction of portal hypertension. Simple regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between TTPP and PVP.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CEUS was useful for detecting hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs, which was characterized by a rapid increase in the intensity of the hepatic vein. Furthermore, TTPP, a time-dependent variable, provided useful complementary information for predicting portal hypertension.
IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Because the method described here induced presinusoidal portal hypertension, these results can be applied to idiopathic portal hypertension in humans.