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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the time of onset and duration of action of distal paravertebral blocks (DPB) in dairy cattle using lidocaine and lidocaine plus xylazine (LX).

ANIMALS

10 healthy adult Holstein cows.

METHODS

Unilateral DPB were performed in 6 cows at L1, L2, and L4. They received 2 treatments (lidocaine and LX) in a blinded random crossover design. Due to treatment failure, 4 additional cows were enrolled. The lidocaine treatment received 1,800 mg (90 mL) of lidocaine, and treatment LX received 1,784 mg (89.2 mL) of lidocaine and 16 mg (0.8 mL) of xylazine. Anesthesia was assessed by response (rapid movements of the tail, directed movements of the feet, or turning of the head towards the site of the needle pricks) to 6 approximately 1-cm deep needle pricks to the paralumbar fossa with a 22-gauge hypodermic needle. The time of onset, duration of action, maximum sedation score, and average heart rate (HR) were compared between treatments.

RESULTS

Duration of anesthesia was significantly prolonged after DPB in cows treated with LX (251.6 ± 96.94 minutes) compared to lidocaine (105.8 ± 35.9 minutes; P = .01). Treatment with LX was associated with significantly lower average heart rate (56 ± 3 beats/min) compared to cows treated with lidocaine (59 ± 3 beats/min; P = .045). The LX treatment was associated with mild sedation but was not significant (P = .063).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The addition of xylazine to a lidocaine DPB provides a longer duration of anesthesia, is inexpensive and practical, and can be implemented with ease.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiological features of an outbreak of leptospirosis in dogs in Maricopa County, Ariz, from January 2016 through June 2017.

ANIMALS

71 case and 281 control dogs.

PROCEDURES

Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, suspect, or not a case on the basis of medical record data that fulfilled clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiological criteria. Potential exposures were assessed by owner survey. For the case-control investigation, control dogs were recruited through owner completion of a July 2017 survey. Summary statistics and ORs for case dog lifestyle factors were reported.

RESULTS

54 dogs were classified as confirmed and 17 as probable cases. For 4 dogs of a household cluster (5 confirmed and 3 probable), the highest microscopic agglutination titer was for serovar Djasiman (Leptospira kirschneri detected by PCR assay), and for 13 dogs of a community outbreak (49 confirmed and 14 probable cases), the highest titer was for serovar Canicola (Leptospira interrogans detected by PCR assay). The 44 case dogs included in the case-control investigation were 7.7 (95% CI, 3.5 to 16.7) and 2.9 times (95% CI, 1.3 to 6.6) as likely as control dogs to have visited dog daycare or to have been kenneled overnight at a boarding facility, respectively, 30 days prior to the onset of clinical signs or diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Diagnostic and epidemiological findings indicated 2 outbreaks. Transmission where dogs congregated likely propagated the community outbreak. Outbreaks of leptospiral infections can occur in regions of low prevalence, and a dog's exposure to areas where dogs congregate should be considered when making Leptospira vaccination recommendations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association