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Objective

To determine whether end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Petco 2) was a reliable estimate of Paco2 in dogs undergoing thoracotomy.

Design

Case series.

Animals

18 dogs that underwent thoracotomy.

Procedure

Paco2 and Petco 2 were measured shortly after induction of anesthesia, while dogs were breathing spontaneously; 5 minutes prior to initial skin incision, while dogs were receiving intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV); 5, 30, and 60 minutes after the thoracic cavity was opened, while dogs were receiving IPPV; and after the thoracic cavity was closed and evacuated, when dogs were again breathing spontaneously. For each period, arterial-end-tidal difference in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Paco2-Petco 2) was compared with Paco2-Petco 2 for the preceding period.

Results

Significant changes in Paco2-Petco 2 from one period to the next were not detected except when values obtained 5 minutes after the thoracic cavity was opened were compared with values obtained 5 minutes before incision. The Paco2-Petco 2 was not constant for individual dogs.

Clinical Implications

Petco 2 was not a reliable indicator of adequacy of ventilation during thoracotomy in these dogs, because it differed greatly from Paco2, and Pac02-PETC02 was not consistent. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:377-379)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure the amount of heat generated during 3 methods of equine dental reduction with power instruments.

Design—In vitro study.

Sample Population—30 premolar and molar teeth removed from mandibles of 8 equine heads collected at an abbatoir.

Procedure—38-gauge copper-constantan thermocouples were inserted into the lingual side of each tooth 15 mm (proximal) and 25 mm (distal) from the occlusal surface, at a depth of 5 mm, which placed the tip close to the pulp chamber. Group-NC1 (n = 10) teeth were ground for 1 minute without coolant, group-NC2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes without coolant, and group-C2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes with water for coolant.

Results—Mean temperature increase was 1.2°C at the distal thermocouple and 6.6°C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC1 teeth, 4.1°C at the distal thermocouple and 24.3°C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC2 teeth, and 0.8°C at the distal thermocouple and –0.1°C at the proximal thermocouple for group-C2 teeth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In general, an increase of 5°C in human teeth is considered the maximum increase before there is permanent damage to tooth pulp. In group-NC2 teeth, temperature increased above this limit by several degrees, whereas in group-C2 teeth, there was little or no temperature increase. Our results suggest that major reduction of equine teeth by use of power instruments causes thermal changes that may cause irreversible pulp damage unless water cooling is used. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1128–1132)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association